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Albert Einstein, Scientist 


In this issue: f^^Z^ 

_ _ . Improvement 

The Convergence of 

Science & Religion 

"Einstein had to have the kind of dogged conviction 
; that could have allowed him to say with Job, 'Though 
I he slay me, yet will I trust in him.' " See page 62. 


Ji\ * 

Job, Man of F^ifth 



Quality study 
beyond the bachelors 
degree at BYU-the 
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graduate school* 

Write to the Dean of the Graduate School, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah, for any of 
the following information: ■ 1968-1969 Graduate School Catalog of courses, requirements ■ 
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and last year master's and doctor's 
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Faculty, whose members command 
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Cover Note: 

Physicist Albert Einstein and the Old 
Testament prophet Job have become 
well-recognized symbols of men who 
were deeply concerned with life and 
who probed its meaning, each ulti- 
mately finding in his search a lasting 
faith in God's goodness. 

The search for truth by men of sci- 
ence and religion is lucidly described in 
"The Convergence of Science and Re- 
ligion" on page 62 by Nobel Prize- 
winning physicist Charles H. Townes. 
Dr. Townes is not a Latter-day Saint, but 
his thoughts on the subject will be of 
great interest to members of the 

Our cover is related to Dr. Townes' 
article. The portraits of Einstein and 
Job are by Salt Lake artist Dale Kil- 
bourn, whose artwork has become 
familiar to Latter-day Saints through 
the "Be Honest With Yourself" series 
and the "Signs of the True Church" 
series. He painted some of the posters 
in each series. Some of the murals in 
the Arizona Temple Bureau of Informa- 
tion at Mesa are also by him. 

Perhaps readers will be interested to 
know that, due to conditions associated 
with selecting a suitable cover, the 
artist could not be given his assignment 
until late one afternoon just two days 
before it was needed for press dead- 
lines. He returned two days later 
with his portraits of Einstein and Job. 
We hope readers will enjoy his interpre- 
tation of the thought-lined face of 
Einstein and the wise, serene face 
of Job. 

Official organ of the Priesthood Quorums. Mutual Improvement Associations 
Home Teaching Committee, Music Committee, Church School System, and 
other agencies of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. 

The Improvement Era, 79 South State, Salt Lake City. Utah 84111 

February 1968 

The Voice of the Church 

February 1968 

Volume 71, Number 2 

Special Features 

2 Editor's Page: Sermons in a Sentence or Two, President David 0. 

14 A New Look at the Pearl of Great Price: Part 1, Challenge and Re- 
sponse (continued), Dr. Hugh Nibley 

26 The Hurricane and Olataga of Samoa, Coy Harmon 

28 Where Does All the Money Go? Dr. Quinn G. McKay 

40 Colored photographs of Egyptian Papyri 

62 The Convergence of Science and Religion, Charles H. Townes 

Regular Features 

10 Teaching: Contact! Nicholas Van Alfen 

22 Genealogy: Major Genealogical Record Sources in Sweden 

25 Lest We Forget: The Word of Wisdom, Albert L. Zobell, Jr. 

49 The Presiding Bishopric's Page: The Presiding Bishop Talks to Youth 
About Respect, Bishop John H. Vandenberg 

51 The Era Asks About Genealogy in the Church Today 

58 Today's Family: Do Your Best at the Moment — Then Stand Relaxed, 

Florence B. Pinnock 

60 Home, Sweet Home 

72 The LDS Scene 

74 The Church Moves On 

76 Buffs and Rebuffs 

78 These Times: The State of Morals, G. Homer Durham 

80 End of an Era 

53, 70, 71, 74 The Spoken Word, Richard L Evans 

Era of Youth 

33-48 Marion D. Hanks and Elaine Cannon, Editors 

Fiction, Poetry 

4 Journey at Dawn, Eugene A. Hooper, Jr. 
10, 68, 70, 75, 80 Poetry 

David O. McKay and Richard L. Evans, Editors; Doyle L. Green. Managing Editor; Albert L Zobell, Jr., Research Editor; Mabel Jones Gabbott, Jay M. Todd. 
Eleanor Knowles, William T. Sykes, Editorial Associates; Florence B. Pinnock, Today's Family Editor; Marion D, Hanks, Era of Youth Editor; Elaine Cannon, 
Era of Youth Associate Editor; Ralph Reynolds, Art Director; Norman F, Price, Staff Artist. 

G. Homer Durham, Franklin S. Harris. Jr., Hugh Nibley, Sidney B. Sperry, Albert L. Payne, Contributing Editors. 

G. Carlos Smith, Jr., General Manager; Florence S. Jacobsen, Associate General Manager; Verl F. Scott. Business Manager; A, Glen Snarr, Acting Business 

Manager and Subscription Director; Thayer Evans, S. Glenn Smith. Advertising Representatives. 

O General Superintendent, Young Men's Mutual Improvement Association of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. 1968, and published by the 

Mutual Improvement Associations of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. All rights reserved. Subscription price, $3.00 a year, in advance; 

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Entered at the Post Office, Salt Lake City, Utah, as second class matter. Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in section 1103, 

act of October 1917, authorized July 2. 1918. 

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accompanied by sufficient postage for delivery and return. 

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changes cannot be made unless the old address as well as the new one is included. 

The Editor's Page 

By President David O. McKay 

Sermons in a 
Sentence or Two 

• If you would obtain the highest success and the 
most contentment of mind, practice in your daily 
contacts the ideals of the gospel of Jesus Christ. 

Whatever you have chosen as your profession, do 
your best to excel. 

The thing that a man really believes in his heart is 
the thing that he really thinks. What he actually 
thinks is the thing he lives. 

It is true that self-preservation is the first law of 
nature, but it is not a law of spiritual growth. He 
who lets selfishness and his passions rule him 
binds his soul in slavery, but he who, in the majesty 
of spiritual strength, uses his physical tendencies 
and yearnings and his possessions to serve purposes 
higher than personal indulgence and comfort takes 
the first step toward the happy and useful life. 

Men do not go beyond their ideals. They often fall 
short of them, but they never go beyond them. 

With all my heart, I say to you that usefulness, 
pleasure, joy, and happiness in this life come by 
following Christ's admonition of seeking first his 

When the people who call themselves Christian 
militantly enlist under the leadership of the one to 
whom they refer as King of the world; when they 
accept as facts and not as theories his moral and 
spiritual teachings; when for selfishness they substi- 
tute kindness and thoughtfulness toward others; 
when they aggressively defend the principles of true 
liberty, then may we begin to realize the hope that 
wrong may be abolished, righteousness may be en- 
throned in human hearts, and honest relations may 
become the daily practice of society. Then, and not 
until then, will the kingdoms of this world become 
the kingdom of our God. 

Truly, the time has come, as perhaps never before, 
when men should counsel together and in wisdom 
determine how the world may be made a better 
place in which to live. 

An active, sincere faith in the basic teachings of 
Jesus of Nazareth is the greatest need of the world. 
Because many reject this truth is all the more reason 
why sincere believers should proclaim it. 

Man needs a rededication to the principles of un- 
selfishness. No peace or freedom can come to the 
world as long as men live only for themselves. 

Obedience to Christ and his laws brings life and 
life eternal. 

We cannot truly believe that we are the children 
of God and that God exists without our also believ- 
ing in the final inevitable triumph of truth expressed 
in the gospel of Jesus Christ. 

Improvement Era 

If you will live in accordance with the humble 
principles under the covenants you made at the 
water's edge, and since that time that you have made 
in sacrament meetings, and that many of you have 
made in the House of God, you will fill a noble 
mission, and God will reward you. 

The mission of the Church is to proclaim the truth 
of the restored gospel, to uplift society that people 
may mingle more amicably one with another, and to 
create in our communities a wholesome environment 
in which our children may find strength to resist 
temptation, and encouragement to strive for cultural 
and spiritual attainment. 

The restored gospel is a rational philosophy that 
teaches men how to get happiness in this life and 
in the life to come. 

God help us to be true to our responsibilities and 
to our callings, and especially to the responsibility we 
bear as fathers and mothers of the children of Zion 
—heaven's treasures given to us. 

One never develops character by yielding to wrong. 
Strength comes by resisting! 

Nature's law is the survival of the fittest. God's law 
is: Use your personal power and possessions for the 
advancement and happiness of others. 

To members of the restored Church, marriage is a 
divine ordinance and, when directed by intelligent 

parenthood, the surest and safest means for the 
improvement of mankind. Marriage is not a cere- 
mony to be entered into lightly, to be terminated at 
pleasure, nor a union to be dissolved at the first 
difficulty that might arise. 

The ability to preserve the home in its purity and 
usefulness is found in The Church of jesus Christ 
of Latter-day Saints. 

God should be the center of our lives and the lives 
of all in the world. 

The Mormon pioneers did not regard drama and 
the theater as merely a mode of amusement. They 
found it as a means of entering into and sharing the 
impulses of the mind and feelings, and thereby 
establishing in the wilderness a spiritual oasis where 
the minds and souls of men could be refreshed, 
where men could lose the sense of isolation and 
loneliness and return to their tasks refreshed and 
with a renewed conviction of solidarity. 

No outward environment alone can produce man- 
hood. The virtues of life spring from within. 

Right thoughts and feelings, if consistently kept 
in the foreground, inevitably lead to right acts. 

The handsomest youth and the most beautiful 
maiden may mar their beauty by a morose, cross- 
tempered disposition or by nursing dissatisfaction 
in the soul. O 

February 1968 

Improvement Era 


• Kaarlo Maki pulled the thick fur collar of his 
coat tighter about his throat and tucked the edge 
of his black woolen scarf under his fur hat. It 
was bitter cold, too cold to be riding a bicycle and 
too cold for an old man to be away from his stove 
and hot cereal. His breath froze in ice crystals 
on his moustache and fur collar and made the tiny 
red blood vessels zigzag brightly through his 
leathery cheeks. Stubbornly, his old legs pushed 
the pedals around, and the tires crunched the 
snowy crust on the ice. 

He could have waited until the noon train, but 
the morning milk train would get him there 
faster. He heard the whistle off in the distance 
and knew that the train was approaching the 
paper factory. The tall smokestack of the factory 
was becoming visible in the early morning light 
of the Finnish February. Its column of white 
smoke rose a few yards above the stack and then 
bent itself flat to follow the wind to the south 
horizon, making a white stream in the cold, 
gray sky. 

Kaarlo was puffing. The coat and two sweaters 
held the warmth of his old body in and caused him 
to perspire, but he dared not loosen his collar 
in the cold. 

He approached the ancient wooden station and 
pedaled up to the bicycle rack at the front porch. 
There were already several bicycles locked in the 
rack. Some of them were bent and rusty, but 
all had the same layer of frost crystals on the 
handlebars and spokes. Kaarlo's bicycle fit easily 
at the end of the rack, and he was glad to climb 
off and lock it. The spring clamp snapped shut 
when he pulled his leather satchel from the rear 
fender. The ice crystals that stood straight out 
on the brass lock of the bag turned into drops 
of water when he entered the warm station. He 
wiped water drops from his moustache and 
loosened his collar and scarf. 

The ticket agent, in a blue uniform, smiled at 
Kaarlo. Kaarlo did not smile back but soberly laid 
three one-mark bills on the tray. 

"You look tired this morning, Kaarlo," the ticket 
agent offered in sympathetic concern. 

Kaarlo shrugged his shoulders and felt the 
weight of his years crowd his strength. "I am an 

By Eugene A. Hooper, Jr. 

Eugene A. Hooper, Jr., a film splicer and shipper in the 
Church's Genealogical Society, is a former missionary to Fin- 
land and wrote "Journey at Dawn" to examine how through 
the gospel one may find answers to personal dilemmas. 

old man," he said. "Too old to lose my son." 

The ticket agent was startled. "Has some- 
thing happened to Matti?" 

Kaarlo bowed his head in humiliation as he 
muttered, "Something terrible. He says he will 
become a Mormon!" 

"It cannot be true! Matti knows better. What 
is he thinking?" 

"I do not know," Kaarlo said, his voice shaking 
with indignation. "This is why I must go to him. 
I must stop him before he throws his life away 
and shames his family." 

Kaarlo picked up his ticket and slowly walked 
out to the waiting train. His heart was heavy as 
he climbed the steps to the coach and found a 
seat at the end of the car. The straight wooden 
back of the seat exercised its discipline, and the 
old man braced himself, with his hands clutching 
the front edge of the seat. The jerking motion 
of the train rocked Kaarlo from side to side, and 
with each sway his son's name moved his tongue. 
His old mind was bewildered and tired. The ques- 
tions rocked him almost as hard as the train. "Why 
do you do this to me ? Who do you love more than 
your old papa?" 

The bleak loneliness of the Finnish winter land- 
scape reflected no sympathy or feeling of kindness 
outside the dimly lit train. Occasionally a small 
farmhouse would break the cold scene. Kaarlo 
began to talk to himself in a quiet mumble. "I am 
like one of those farmhouses, alone in a cold world, 
and my son is like this train, puffing ahead on his 
own steam and passing me by. He will forget me 
and become trapped by that new religion." 

Tears weakened his proud old face as he 
thought of Helmi. Surely, if she were still alive, 
Matti would not deliberately shame her. Better 
for her to be dead than grieved by her son. 
Kaarlo's back hurt against the wooden bench. He 
was chilly and hungry and should not have left his 
cottage without eating something. Perhaps he 
would buy a bowl of broth when he arrived in 

He looked at the other passengers in the coach 
and wondered if they bore a grief such as his. 
Here in Finland, he thought, the people should be 
free from strange and harmful ideas of religion. 

February 1968 

. *». ' ft 

^"f t r 

' ;n t 

■ ; 





Illustrated by Dale Kilbourn 

The forests and lakes were close on every hand, 
and man had but to tend his fields and gather his 
family to him at evening time. 

"Matti, my son," he murmured. "Come back 
here to Kemi and to your papa. You can sell your 
tools here." 

The train was coming to a halt at the Oulu 
station. Kaarlo watched the freight rails clip by, 
and then he was looking down at the faces on the 
platform. The train groaned and squealed as the 
cold steel of tracks and wheels fought each other 
to a stop. He pulled himself to his feet and 
limped toward the door. A few people hurried 
through the car, squeezing past him, and he felt 
the cold escaping from them. 
helped him climb off the train, and as he stepped 
onto the deserted platform, the icy wind grabbed 
at his face like a claw and stung until he was in 
the station house. He stood for a few minutes 
staring across the waiting room. The clock above 
the ticket window showed 7:30, too late to catch 
Matti at home and perhaps too early to visit him 
at his store. 

The little bags of candy and bowls of fruit at 
the magazine stand reminded him that he had not 
prepared a hot breakfast before he left home. A 
cozy cafe would make a nice place to wait and to 

Before he left the station, he fixed his scarf 
over his nose and mouth and pulled the fur hat 
down even with his eyebrows. It was early yet, 
and men dressed in brown leather work clothes 
were shoveling dirt onto the icy streets from 
horse-drawn wagons. 

Kaarlo left the station and walked to a cafe 
a few yards ahead. The air inside was steamy 
and fragrant with the smell of hot soup and cooked 
mush, and the place was crowded with men joking 
and eating. He picked up a tray and helped him- 
self to hot stew, black rye bread, and thick butter- 
milk. The steaming tray was a bit of comfort to 
his worried mind, and he took his time warming 
and filling himself. The cold emptiness dissipated 
gradually, as did the crowd. 

Then he bundled himself up again and went out 
into the cold. He crossed the street to the market 
square where men and women, dressed in gray 

Improvement Era 

twill and black felt coats and black boots, were 
setting up booths. The white canvas roofs were 
badly stained from the weather, and Kaarlo 
watched for a while as the wares were hung and 
arranged under them. Helmi had tended such a 
booth in Imatra, selling sauna bath brushes and 
sponges. Until he was old enough for school, Matti 
used to play around the booths. Kaarlo could re- 
member Helmi pulling the heavy cart, with Matti 
perched on top of it, up to the shed behind the 

He shook his head at the memory, and a fresh 
surge of heaviness filled his soul as he made his 
way across the square and up the street to Matti's 
apartment. The landlady unlocked the door for 
him, and he slowly shut it behind him. The place 
was clean, and the modern furnishings were evi- 
dence of Matti's success in business. 

Kaarlo laid his wraps on a bench by the door 
and set his leather satchel down beside it. The 
clock showed the hour of ten. It would be a long 
wait until evening, and he felt the strain of his 
journey. Easing himself into a large chair, he 
soon slept. 

He awoke in mid-afternoon to the whistle of the 
howling wind. The whirl of white outside the 
window bleached the view and softened the after- 
noon light. He stretched himself as much as his 
bent limbs would allow and rose from the chair. 
He felt rested in body but his soul was growing 
more restless as he saw the hour nearing three. 
The hard business of waiting confused his think- 
ing, and a dozen dialogues passed through his 
mind, each one growing more bitter as he argued 
with his son until he was shouting and cursing 
within himself. The gnarled old hand wiped the 
sweat from his forehead. 

"What will I say to my son?" he muttered, and 
shrugged his shoulders in bewilderment. 

He walked to the desk and switched on the 
lamp. His eyes scanned the shelves and stopped. 
For a moment he was stunned with bitterness; 
then his anger mounted. He stretched out his 
trembling hand, grabbed the book by its front 
cover, and flung it wildly across the room. The 
title page remained in his grip. He spat on the 
words "Book of Mormon" and crushed the sheet 

into a ball, twisting it in his hand. 

He dropped on the sofa and stared in hatred 
at the torn book. "Cursed book !" he snarled. 

A picture of Matti as a soldier hung between 
pictures of Kaarlo and Helmi on the wall opposite 
the sofa. Kaarlo's gaze switched from the book 
to the picture. "How proud and fine a son you 
were in battle for your homeland," he whispered. 
"How could such a fine mind like yours be trapped 
by a heathen religion?" 

He looked back to the torn book on the floor. 
"What could such a book contain to lure my son?" 

The howling of the wind had ceased outside the 
window. Kaarlo felt the same emptiness draining 
his heart as on the cold night when he lost Helmi. 
It was during the winter war against Russia. 
Helmi had volunteered with the women of the 
town to gather firewood in the forest. It was 
dangerous business to comb through the woods 
so close to the lines of battle in eastern Finland, 
and an undetected mine exploded as Helmi and 
the cart full of wood passed over it. Kaarlo sent 
little Matti to be cared for by his sister in Kemi 
on the western coast until the war had ended. To 
return to Imatra without Helmi seemed unthink- 
able, and so Kaarlo also moved to Kemi. 

Now he again felt a destructive force invading 
his family. 

"I must save my son !" he cried. "I'll expose this 
enemy and make Matti see its danger!" 

He rose tremblingly and walked to where the 
book lay. Bending down, he picked it up and 
carried it back to the desk. His shaking fingers 
smoothed the crumpled pages and opened them to 
the first chapter. The old eyes bowed closer to 
the book and squinted until the words found clar- 
ity. "I, Nephi, having been born of goodly 
parents. . . ." The words caught in his throat. 
"Matti, haven't you been born of goodly parents ?" 
he cried aloud. 

"Of course I have, Papa." 

Kaarlo turned toward the door. Matti was 
brushing the snow from his coat and beaming at 
the sight of his father. 

"When did you come, Papa? You shouldn't be 
out in a storm like this." 

Kaarlo's voice was trembling as he struggled 

February 1968 

to address his son. "Ah, the storm, the storm ! 
It is not so bad as this enemy which seeks to tear 
you from your own papa!" He waved the book in 
front of him. 

"Papa, what do you mean? I am not being torn 
from you. I want you to hear about the most 
rewarding news I've been blessed to receive!" 

"I will not hear of it!" Kaarlo exclaimed. 

Matti let his coat and hat drop over his father's 
wraps on the bench. 

"The cold and dark make us cross and hungry. 
Let me make a warm supper for you, Papa." 

Kaarlo nodded and settled back down onto the 
sofa. "Rewarding news, hah! Who brings this 
news that shades your eyes?" 

Matti came into the living room with a sack of 
rice in his hands. "Two Americans who are fine 
young men sent by the Lord. They will call on 
me tonight. I want you to meet them." 

"No!" Kaarlo shook his head. "I will not see 

Matti shrugged his shoulders and turned back 
into the kitchen. Kaarlo's grip tightened on the 
book until his knuckles were white; then he laid 
it on the sofa and went into the kitchen. The meal 
was hot and satisfying to the old man. His nerves 

felt relaxed as he listened with pride as his son 
reviewed the success of his store. A man so 
wise and successful as Matti should not be easily 
trapped by nonsense, Kaarlo thought. Perhaps 
this thing was not nonsense or foolishness, but 
certainly it was evil and deceiving. 

Matti rose and began to clear the table. 

"The Americans come in half an hour, Papa. 
You will like them, you'll see." 

Kaarlo shook his head. "I go to bed. You send 
them away if you love your papa and your 

Matti felt his father's words bite into the joy 
of his new faith. 

"Let me help you into bed, Papa." 

Matti shut the door between the living room 
and the bedroom. He stood for a moment with 
head bowed and hands clasped. The prayer for 
the understanding of his father was short and 
simple. As he opened his eyes he saw the 
crumpled page on the floor and the closed book 
on the sofa. 

"What could make Papa hate it so much?" 

If anyone were ever alone and needing comfort 
and faith, Matti knew it must be his father. The 
stubbornness against change and the lack of en- 
thusiasm for life must be conquered, but how? 

He heard the missionaries getting off the 
elevator and hurried to the door to open it as they 
rang. The two young men brushed the snow off, 
their red faces shining with wide smiles as Matti 
welcomed them inside. They joked and laughed 
about the cold weather before getting down to 
business. Matti felt the strength of their spirit 
pour into his own new testimony as he visited 
with them. How he wished that his father could 
join in this happiness and light! 

Elder Davis cleared his throat and asked Matti 
if he would like to open their meeting with prayer. 
The request caught him off guard, but he knelt 
with the elders and began to pray. As he prayed he 
thought of his father lying in the dark, alone 
and bitter. ", . . and bless my father that he 
may accept and understand thy truths, which I 
must take upon myself." 

He finished the prayer and sat down. The 
missionaries were visibly touched by the sincerity 

Improvement Era 

of the prayer, and Elder Davis inquired about 
Matti's father. 

Kaarlo lay in the darkness trying to shut out 
the conversation in the next room. The more he 
fought it, the more he had to listen. 

"Brother Maki, we've had a change in your 
baptismal arrangements," the missionary was 

"Good, good!" Kaarlo, in the next room, whis- 
pered to himself. 

The elder continued : "How would you like to be 
baptized tomorrow afternoon rather than next 

Kaarlo was rocked by panic. "Say no! Never!" 
he shouted within himself. 

"The reason for the change," Elder Davis con- 
tinued, "is that the swimming hall has been re- 
scheduled for competition next week. We have 
the portable font coming on the midnight train 
from Pori, and we can set it up in the chapel 

Matti looked toward the bedroom door and then 
back to the elders. "What time shall I meet you 
at the chapel?" 

The tears shone in the eyes of Elders Davis and 
Clark as smiles of gratitude spread across their 
faces. Kaarlo's heart was sinking in hurt and 
bitterness. The dark room seemed to be closing 
tighter about him as he felt Helmi and now Matti 
fading out of his life forever. 

"Is there anything you would like to ask or 
review before we get into, our discussion?" Elder 
Davis asked. 

Matti thought for a moment. "Yes, there is. I'd 
like you to review the journey of man through the 
Lord's plan of eternal life." 

"The journey of man indeed !" Kaarlo coughed. 

Elder Clark set up his flannel board and pro- 
cee'ded to explain the plan of salvation as out- 
lined in the scriptures. Matti answered the 
questions with accuracy. 

The whole story was inconceivable to Kaarlo. 
Why, even the priest had declared at Helmi's 
funeral that her spirit would rest forever in that 
great beyond while her body remained forever in 
the ground. 

As Elder Clark finished the review, Elder Davis 

added his testimony. Kaarlo heard him declare 
that he knew that families would be reunited and 
resurrected to live in the vigor of their manhood 
and the beauty of their womanhood in the presence 
of God, if they accepted God's plan here on earth. 
The statement struck Kaarlo like a bolt of 
lightning. "My Helmi alive and waiting for me?" 
His heart was pounding. "Can it be true?" he 

How much longer the missionaries stayed was 
unknown to Kaarlo. His mind was held captive 
by the memory of his lovely Helmi. How was her 
hair fixed ? In a braid, a bun, or flowing over her 
shoulder? Yes, yes, that was it — long and lovely 
and golden as the sun-warmed wheat. Her eyes 
were blue as the summer sky is blue, and her skin, 
clear and pink. Was he crying? The tears 
trickled down his cheeks. Wonderful, gay Helmi! 
Remember how she proudly stood in the door of 
the little cottage by the lake and presented him 
with his tiny son as he returned from the logging 
camp? There she is now, standing on the little 
boat dock at the lake with the picnic basket in one 
arm and Matti in the other. How full of life and 
youth and joy she is, with the warmth of summer 
all about her. The old man stretched forth his 
arms to enfold her tenderly. It was as if she 
were there, vibrant and sweet, in the room with 
him now. 

Then came the ravages of war, and in the white 
and empty bleakness of the winter forest she was 
gone. Kaarlo felt himself standing in the little 
cemetery by the church as her coffin was slowly 
lifted from the cart and placed in the frozen 
ground. The gray wooden box disappeared be- 
neath the dirt and snow. "Helmi !" the old man 
cried. "We had so little time !" 

The voice of Elder Davis rang clear in his mind: 
". . . and live in the beauty of their womanhood 

"Is it true, is it true?" Kaarlo kept asking, as 
he tossed and turned all night. First Helmi, then 
the book he had torn, and then Matti danced be- 
fore his vision through the long hours. 

Perhaps he slept and dreamed — he could not 
tell ; but the dull aching in his back and shoulders 
reminded him that he had not rested. He sat 

February 1968 

up slowly and rested on the edge of the bed. The 

room was still dark, but he shuffled his way to the 
window and parted the drapes. The air was clear 
and the scene still and sharp. He glanced toward 
the clear black of the sky; the few stars that 
remained in the pre-dawn were brilliant. The 
pureness of the night flowed into his soul and 
sharpened the longing he felt for Helmi. He stared 
at the sky. 

"Oh, tell me," he cried, "is it true what the 
Americans say?" It was the first time he had 
ever called upon any divine being. He stumbled 
back to the bed and fell exhausted upon it. . . . 

Matti threw back the covers and swung his 
feet into his slippers before the alarm went off. 
Today he would be baptized and take his first step 
toward the kingdom of God ! He was excited and 
happy; then he remembered his father's bitter- 
ness. The worry he felt edged out the joy and 
left him troubled as he washed and dressed. Be- 
fore he left his room, he knelt down by the side 
of his bed and prayed. 

"Please, Father in heaven, help Papa to under- 
stand what I must do." Peace returned to his 
heart as he rose from his knees and went into the 
kitchen. He fixed a breakfast tray and carried it 
into his father. 

Kaarlo opened his eyes as his son entered the 
room. "You bring your old papa his breakfast 
in bed? You are a good son." 

"It's been a long time since I did something 
good for you, Papa." 

"Nonsense! You're always good to me." 

Matti set the tray on Kaarlo's lap and watched 
while the old man ate the hot mush. "Papa," he 
hesitated, "I will be baptized today into the Mor- 
mon Church." 

Kaarlo nodded his head. "I know. I heard your 
American friends speak of it last night." 

Matti watched his father's eyes carefully, but 
he could not read the expression behind them. 
"Papa, I don't mean to hurt you or bring you 
shame, but I have to join the Mormons. I know 
that they speak the truth." 

The old man searched his son's face before 
speaking. "You have been a good son, always, 
and you have never been dishonest with your 
papa. Are you sure that this new religion is 
the truth?" 

"Yes, Papa, I am sure." 

"Then I must ask you something else. Last 
night the Americans said we live in youth and 
fineness with God in a future life. Is my Helmi 
really there, alive and waiting?" 

The earnestness with which Kaarlo spoke 
tugged at Matti's heart. With joyful faith he 
answered, "Oh, yes! Don't you see, Papa? I have 
prayed that the Lord would bless you with under- 
standing, and he has answered my prayers !" 

"I know," Kaarlo said. "I have prayed too, and 
someday, perhaps, I shall be baptized a Mormon, 
if they have room for an old man !" 

Matti lifted the tray and smiled at his father 
with a twinkle in his eye. 

"You know, Papa? I too have been born of 
goodly parents !" O 

Feminine Agenda 
By Mildred Ann Bazan 

Although I'm aware it's the hour for sleep, 

Some pertinent rendezvous I've yet to keep: 

A chapter of Bronte, a diary page, 

This week's computation of my sitting wage, 

Tivo minutes of whirl in a dress that is new 

(One must know beforehand what box pleats will do), 

One hundred strokes of the brush to my hair, 

And, last and best, meeting with God, in prayer! 


Improvement Era 



Conducted by the 
Church School System 

Illustrated by Dale Kilboutn 


By Nicholas Van Alfen 

JnsiSut&'df Religion Instructor, Ogden, Utah 

• The dawn was beginning to 
chase the night shadows from a 
United States airstrip in France 
on the first of August 1917, as 
the warning was flashed of ap- 
proaching enemy planes. Ameri- 
can fighter pilots soon were 
bursting from the barracks, run- 
ning in several directions. As the 
pilots settled into their cockpits, 
they anxiously waited to hear the 
keyword pierce the crisp morning 

air. Their comrades on the 
ground gripped the propeller 
blades of the planes and shouted, 
"Contact!" Immediately a vigor- 
ous pull on a blade brought the 
welcome but deafening roar of 
a powerful engine. Soon the 
planes were rising into the dawn 
to meet the challenge. 

A successful point of contact 
between the man on the ground 
controlling the propellers and the 

pilot in the plane waiting in an- 
ticipation during these urgent 
situations was an all-important 
factor. There were times of great 
concern when the shout "Con- 
tact!" and a pull on the pro- 
peller did not bring the roar 
of the motor because of some 

As if on an airstrip, a teacher 
stands before his class; the 
students are seated — the "switch" 

February 1968 


"To pass on unfounded, hearsay stories of a sensational nature ... is poor teaching." 

is on. The hour is extremely 
important, because there are 
young lives looking to him for a 
meaningful experience. The teach- 
er may fail to pull the "propeller 
blade," however, because the hour 
seems too long for the little 
preparation he has, so he delays 
the takeoff. The result is that 
there is no meaningful contact. 

When a teacher vacillates by 
spending too much time on non- 
contributing details, such as a 
lengthy roll call, which could be 
handled another way, or rambling 
about in an attempt to be enter- 
taining, he does not instill the 
feeling of a planned program in 
the minds of his students. Stu- 
dents will sit in anticipation at 
the feet of a teacher who knows 
where he is going and gets on his 
way. A good teacher is eager to 
present his material and is en- 
thusiastic about what he has to 

All of us are searching to find 
contact with the meaningful 
things that give life the spark and 
purpose it should have. It is then 
that we soar above mundane 
thoughts and mundane living. The 
point of contact found by stu- 
dents in a meaningful experience 
in a classroom may prove to be 
a turning point in their lives. By 
finding the points of contact in 
the lives of class members, a 
teacher can become the architect 
of many souls through the use of 
proper methods and knowledge. 

Students become involved only 
when a teacher's lesson enters 
into the orbit of their experience. 
A teacher can pull on the pro- 
peller blade of nonlife-related 
material for an hour and not even 
get a sputter. Standing before a 

class is like standing before 
receiving stations that have their 
dials variously set. It is the 
teacher's challenge to influence 
the class to tune in to the pro- 
gram he has prepared for that 

I remember, when I was a boy, 
a small, well-worn frame house in 
which lived an old man who 
always kept the window shades 
pulled down. We children were 
afraid to go near it. No one 
could see in, and we supposed 
that he did not see out. He came 
out of his house only after dark 
to walk around the block a few 
times. Our parents had little 
trouble getting us to come in just 
before dark each evening, even 
though the old man never hurt 
anyone. Then one very cold day 
they found him dead in his small, 
closed-in world. People knew his 
name but that was all. 

Very few people live alone in 
little frame houses with drawn 
shades. Many people, however, 
do live alone with their problems, 
which are often very serious and 
sad. Sometimes even parents are 
not aware of their own children's 
problems, because they are so 
busy with other things. 

Students often have a drawn 
shade covering their problems. 
Teachers may be unaware of the 
heartaches of a student sitting 
only three feet away in a class- 
room. The only way we will ever 
know that others are sad and 
may need help is for us to even- 
tually raise by personal interest 
that shade which is dividing their 
problems from o'ur perception. 
Only then will we be able to con- 
tact each other heart-to-heart as 
well as eye-to-eye. 

In a teacher's life there should 
be a minimum of drawn shades 
between himself and his students. 
There cannot be much meaning- 
ful contact with a group of stu- 
dents when a teacher does not 
penetrate beyond the shadows 
where the real person is to be 

For example, a good relation- 
ship between a mother and her 
children exhibits a most basic 
principle of successful teaching. 
This principle is her uninhibited 
love for her children, which she 
manifests in her concern, pa- 
tience, and persistence. Her 
contact with her children is on a 
feeling level; thus, her little 
"class" has full confidence in 
their "teacher." In all teaching 
situations, the feeling contact 
leaves the most enduring im- 

The use of imagination is an 
excellent point of contact. For 
example, the beauty of a gem is 
not enhanced by exhibiting it in 
the palm of the hand; its true 
beauty is even inhibited in such 
a situation. But this same stone 
displayed in a lovely setting in- 
creases in value to the eye and 
seems more desirable. 

The same is true of a meaning- 
ful gem of life that possibly could 
remain in a vague stage because 
of inadequate explanation. Dis- 
playing life's values in word pic- 
tures, stories, and illustrations 
makes them more real, vivid, and 
meaningful in life's situations, 
and the desire to possess such 
values is stimulated. 

To illustrate, consider the fol- 
lowing: A honeybee moves from 
flower to flower and plant to 
plant. Some of these plants are 


Improvement Era 

bitter to the taste, while others ask himself, "Is what I am going in which I lived gathered in an 
are sweet. The bee only extracts to teach reasonable? Does it fit early morning session prior to the 
and stores the sweet that blesses into the total pattern of the general meeting of our stake con- 
mankind. So it should be with teachings of the Church, the ference. Among other business 
us. Out of the variety of life's New Testament, and modern taken up, we learned from our 
experiences, one must store only scriptures? Do I understand visiting General Authority that 
the sweet to become part of him. what I am talking about? Am I the presiding brethren were some- 
If we choose, we may also store dabbling in the 'so-what' areas?" what concerned about a rash of 
the bitter in our souls as we walk A teacher who is not mindful such stories abounding at the 
through life, seeing only the ugly of these questions may short time. This member of the Gen- 
and wrong and developing a sick- circuit some of the lives of his eral Authorities told us that he 
ness of soul that leads to spiritual students through his contact with had been assigned to ascertain if 
death. student thinking by adding to the there were validity to the inci- 

Word pictures leave lasting im- already present problem about dents described. He had not sup- 
pressions. The story of the Prodi- religion that students have in ceeded up to that time because 
gal Son has special meaning to some areas of their college the persons supposedly involved 
fathers who find contact with the education. in such stories were unidentified, 
story or to sons who find them- Sensationalism may gain the There was one case in which 
selves personally involved. Equal- temporary interest of a class, but the principal person in such a 
ly effective are the stories of it is a poor substitute for a realis- story was named, but when this 
the Good Samaritan, the Sower, tic and rational approach to person was approached he was 
the woman found in adultery, and religion and life. To become ab- quite amused because he knew 
many others. These and other sorbed in the speculative, to teach nothing about it. The visiting 
qualities made Christ the Master the future as if it has been blue- brother clearly indicated that we 
Teacher, after whom we try to printed in detail by the prophets as leaders in the stake should 
pattern our teaching. of the past, is not the true image strongly discourage these things. 

Men and women who teach, that should represent religion in Teachers who are responsible for 

however, should not go on and on the lives of young people. To directing the minds of others 

borrowing from the Master alone seek contact with student minds must also avoid such speculative 

but should become imaginative through passing on unfounded, and unfounded stories. The 

and creative in their own right, hearsay stories of a sensational Apostle Paul said to the Church 

Just as Christ's source was the nature, involving supposed experi- in his day, "Prove all things; hold 

world around him, so should our ences by this or that person who fast that which is good." (I Thess. 

modern world and experiences be is never present for verification, 5:21.) 

rich sources for stories and illus- is poor teaching. We have a lofty image of men 

trations that will contact lives. One would have to stretch his who can heal the body or send a 

The days of witch hunting, imagination enormously to accept spacecraft to distant planets, and 
superstition, and ignorance have some of the stories that caught these achievements are important, 
yielded to human progress and fire sometime ago about the Among the most precious assets 
divine revelation. Young people Three Nephites. One or all, de- of society, however, are effective 
today have the advantage of being pending upon the story, were teachers who develop young 
exposed to education and critical supposed to be hitchhiking on the minds. The men and women who 
thinking. Continuing education highways delivering messages of have paid the price to become 
is refining the thought processes warning to this generation of the successful architects of the soul 
of our developing youth to the Church through considerate driv- through making meaningful con- 
point where they want rational ers who had given them rides, tacts with young lives are the 
answers. Every time a teacher During this period the bishoprics hope of our future generations 
of religion faces a class, he must and high councilors of the stake in the Church. O 

February 1968 13 

A New Look at the 

Pearl of Great Price 

By Dr. Hugh Nibley 
Part I. Challenge and Response (Continued) 

Amateurs All 

• The ever-increasing scope of knowledge necessary to cope 
with the great problems of our day has led to increasing 
emphasis on a maxim that would have sounded very strange 
only a few years ago: "There are no fields — there are only 
problems!" — meaning that one must bring to the discussion 
and solution of any given problem whatever is required to 
understand it: If the problem calls for a special mathematics, 
one must get it; if it calls for three or four languages, one 
must get them; if it takes 20 years, one must be prepared 
to give it 20 years — or else shift to some other problem. 
Degrees and credentials are largely irrelevant where a prob- 
lem calls for more information than any one department 
can supply or than can be packaged into any one or a dozen 

Now the Pearl of Great Price presents a number of big 
problems with which no Egyptologist has ever coped. A 
knowledge of Egyptian is the first step toward a solution of 
such problems, but it is by no means the last. Still, first 
things come first: "Ancient Egypt," wrote one of the earliest 
modern researchers in the field, "is accessible only to a 
small number, because of the length and the difficulties 
of the initiation into the language of the hieroglyphs. . . . 
But can a historian . . . renounce the direct examination of 
the original documents, which become every day more 
varied and more numerous, without violating the first rule 
of his discipline?" 42 

Like it or not, we are stuck with Egyptian, and it is only 
fair to note, in defense of the specialists, that if authori- 
tarianism can be a great mischief, the quackery to which it 

gives rise can be even worse, a quack being anybody posing 
as an authority — a shadow of a shadow. There is a place 
in the world for professionalism and even for "authority" 
in science, as Thomas S. Kuhn has explained at great length; 
every field has its "paradigms" that must be mastered 
thoroughly so that they can be used as tools, quickly, deftly, 
with unconscious skill, in the processes of problem solving. 
The expert is one who knows how to use those tools, and 
because the Doctors have not chosen to use their knowledge 
in a serious study of the Pearl of Great Price, it does not 
follow that such knowledge is not important for such 
study — rather, it is indispensable. 

Any ancient text is utterly without meaning to one who 
does not know the language in which it is written. Egyp- 
tian, however, being written in pictures, has been held 
to enjoy a unique status among the mysteries. Away back 
in the fifth century Horapollon had the idea that by 
attributing a symbolic meaning to each little picture and 
putting the symbols together, one could discover the mean- 
ing of any Egyptian text. This theory was adhered to by 
would-be translators of Egyptian right down to the time of 
Champollion, and it still has its advocates among Latter-day 
Saints who would discover ever-new secrets in the Fac- 
similes and identify battered Indian rock-carvings with 
Egyptian glyphs. 

The attempt to give one's own interpretation to picture- 
writing is hard to resist. At the general conference in 
April 1967, for example, somebody circulated a mimeo- 
graphed document bearing the frank and forthright title, 


Improvement Era 

And though he denied 
that his brochure was "circulated 

especially among the students of Latter-day 
Saint high schools," 

he did admit putting it in the hands 
of those who would see 

that it got there. 

"Why Would Anyone Want to Fight the Truth?" The 
"truth" in this case consisted of the author's common-sense 
observations on the nature of Egyptian, such as, that an 
Egyptian symbol written with four elements "could be no 
more than a single Egyptian word." But ancient languages 
have a way of ignoring our modern common-sense rules; 
the Egyptians in particular had an incurable weakness for 
abbreviations, omissions, transpositions, puns, and crypto- 
grams, and their writings are full of signs which, even 
when we know their meaning (which is by no means 
always the case), require at least a sentence or two to 
explain them. Anyone is free to guess at the meaning of 
any Egyptian phrase, and one of the most picturesque as- 
pects of the discipline is a process that never ceases, day 
and night, year in and year out, by which Egyptologists are 
constantly altering and improving on each other's trans- 
lations. But one is not free to present his interpretation 
as "The Truth," and then ask in hurt and accusing tones, 
"Why Would Anyone Want to Fight the Truth?" "I have 
acted upon a principle to which I attach the greatest im- 
portance," wrote A. H. Gardiner, the dean of Egyptian 
grammarians; "even a wrong idea is better than no idea 
at all, and progress in translation can only come by pre- 
senting to the critics some definite objective to tilt at." 43 So 
far was he from thinking that the experts ever have a 
corner on truth! 

The specialists, however, can hardly be blamed for hesi- 
tating to become involved in arguments with just anybody, 
for they are daunted by a peculiarly insidious occupational 

hazard. 44 The air of mystery and romance that has always 
surrounded things Egyptian has never failed to attract swarms 
of crackpots, cultists, half-baked scholars, self- certified ex- 
perts, and out-and-out charlatans. The poor Egyptologist, 
constantly confronted with such characters and their antics, 
is understandably on his guard, quick to suspect and ever 
alert to the slightest signs of wishful thinking or free and 
easy logic. At the same time every Egyptologist is something 
of a crusader who feels bound to foster and encourage inter- 
est in his important but neglected field; he is naturally and 
humanely hesitant to give any sincere seeker the brushoff, 
or to offend any possible future donor or patron of his art. 
In addition, the Egyptologist is himself a romantic at heart, 
or else he would never have chosen such a field for himself, 
and has a secret and sometimes rather obvious kinship with 
the glamor hunters. That, of course, makes him even more 
circumspect in his behavior; he can't afford to get involved 
or identified with such creatures, he shies like a thorough- 
bred horse at every rag and tatter of nonsense in the breeze, 
and he avoids religious controversies like death itself. To 
expect a sympathetic word for Joseph Smith from such 
people is, of course, asking too much — a serious Egyptologist 
just can't risk it. Even to display too lively an interest in 
the Pearl of Great Price or the Book of Mormon has been 
known to jeopardize one's professional standing. 
Bishop Spalding Prepares His Surprise 

Bishop Spalding is described by those who knew him as 
a charming man, a convincing speaker, "a controversialist 
by nature," 45 an enthusiastic intellectual who "follows 

February 1968 


those who go to the farthest frontiers of research in modern, 
or higher, criticism . . . and fearlessly accepts the results 
of that school of thought," 40 an ardent social reformer who, 
while urging the Mormons to come over to his one "his- 
toric faith," regrets that the same Mormons are actually 
doing what he only wishes his own people would do in the 
way of organized activity, while he labors "to help 'sweep 
and garnish' the house of faith with the whisk broom of 
Marxian sophistries." 47 

This man simply could not square the supernaturalist 
claims of Joseph Smith with the enlightened thinking of 
1912. He made such a show of fair play and was so diligent 
in procuring the support of the most eminent scholars in 
putting the Prophet to the test that even B. H. Roberts 
felt constrained to confess, "his method ... is entirely 
legitimate, and the spirit of it [is] irreproachable." 48 

But others, taking a closer look, were not so sure: 
". . . while the bishop appears to treat his subject with 
fairness," wrote Osborne J. P. Widtsoe, "[and] while he 
tries to impress his reader with his openness, his frankness, 
his candor, his honesty, yet his every argument is based 
upon some unfair implication, some false premise. . . . 
His fairness is but surface deep." 49 This grave charge is 
fully borne out in an interview published in the New York 
Times, in which the bishop's magnanimous spirit of love 
and affection for the Mormons takes on a decidedly greenish 

"The breaking up of Mormonism through the desertion 
of the intellectual part of its membership is the failure for 
the Prophet Smith's church which Bishop Spalding foresees. 
It is for that reason that he prefers to address the Mormons 
as his friends rather than to attack them." 50 

Spalding's friend, Dr. Frederick J. Pack, perceived the 
wily stratagem thus freely admitted by Bishop Spalding 
when he was far away from Utah, and commented on its 
effectiveness: ". . . the apparent fairness shown by Dr. 
Spalding made far into the ranks of the Latter-day Saints 
a well prepared path along which the conclusions of his 
article might readily follow." 51 And when a banker friend 
from the East asked the good bishop, "Why not leave the 
Mormons alone?" he replied, "Well, I must feel about 
their acceptance of what is intellectually and morally un- 
true, just as you would feel if you knew a group of people 
were coining . . . counterfeit money." 52 If Dr. Spalding 
had ever heard of the Constitution, which explicitly pro- 
vides that holding a wrong opinion about anything is not 
a crime, as counterfeiting is, he still could not, for all his 
vaunted liberalism, stand the thought that a religion whose 
teachings he believed to be false should be permitted to 
stay in operation. 

As he went about with his sweet strategic smile ("He 
writes to the Mormons in a kindly mood," says the Times), 
the bishop was working hard on his demolition project. 

"Much of Bishop Spalding's work," according to the inter- 
view in the Times, "was done in the Metropolitan Museum 
of Art in this city." 53 This suggests that the final scheme 
took shape only after a number of other approaches had 
proven ineffectual. Many a better scholar than Dr. Spalding 
has discovered that the revelations of Joseph Smith that 
look so delightfully vulnerable at first sight become more 
difficult to refute the more carefully one studies them. "The 
Bishop, it is said, gave a liberal portion of his time and 
thought for some years to this literary production, fully 
expecting that when it should appear in print, it would 
signal the end of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day 
Saints." 54 To compile the little book of but eight very brief 
letters would take no very great amount of time or effort — 
what was Dr. Spalding doing all those years? That his 
long and zealous labors should have brought forth so little 
is in itself a strong point in Joseph Smith's favor. 

But Spalding made the best psychological use of the 
little that he had (an old game with ministers), catching 
the Mormons completely off guard when he finally "fired 
[his] broadside at us," as Professor N. L. Nelson put it: 
". . . think, man," he wrote to his old friend, the bishop, 
"of the 'imprudence' of it! without a declaration of war, 
and in a time of profound peace." Dr. Spalding was 
counting on just that surprise to spread dismay and con- 
fusion, but though the burst was impressive, "as regards 
three-fourths of us, the effect was purely spectacular — a 
compound of smoke and noise." 55 

Spalding's avowed purpose was to save "thousands of 
young men and women" from "the hopelessly illogical, 
untruthful, unspiritual, and immoral system of Joseph 
Smith, Jr." 56 And though he denied that his brochure was 
"circulated especially among the students of the Latter-day 
Saint high schools," he did admit putting it in the hands 
of those who would see that it got there. 57 The appeal to 
intellectual honesty without any insistence on hard study 
can always count on having some effect among those who 
wish to be thought intellectual, and R. C. Webb noted 
that the Spalding plan capitalized on that snob appeal 
which is never lost in academic circles. 58 Hence it was not 
surprising that when a valedictory speaker at the University 
of Utah two years later issued the routine call for greater 
freedom of thought, his boldness was nationally advertised 
by a visiting professor to the university as the direct fruit 
of Spalding's demonstration to the Mormons that "one of 
their sacred books is spurious." 59 Miffed when the Mormons 
refused to lie down because he said "bang," Bishop Spalding 
declared that his project "has become not only a test of 
the competency of the First Presidency of the Church, but 
also of the reliability of the present head of the church," 
since the latter had been unwise enough to believe Joseph 
Smith instead of Spalding's experts. 60 But it is high time 
to take a closer look at the famous test. 


Improvement Era 

"Just the Test We Need" 

The Reverend Spalding's book is dedicated "To my many 
Mormon friends — who are as honest searchers after the 
truth" as he hopes he is himself. This humane and generous 
approach caught the Mormons off guard, as it was meant 
to do. "The manifest fairness of the inquiry and the appar- 
ently well founded conclusions," wrote Professor Pack, 
"came as somewhat of a surprise to the 'Mormon' people," 
who were not accustomed to the soft sell. 61 The book opens 
with the magnanimous admission that others have been 
impetuous, ill-informed, discourteous, and unfair in judging 
the Mormons, and that the time has come for a cool, fair- 
minded, objective testing of the claims of the Prophet. In 
particular, the Book of Mormon "has never had the serious 
examination which its importance demands." 02 To correct 
this oversight, the author then launches into as rigged and 
spurious a test of prophetic inspiration as was ever devised 
by the Scribes and Pharisees. 

Beginning with the statement, "If the Book of Mormon 
is true, it is, next to the Bible, the most important book in 
the world," Spalding notes that no definitive test of that 
book's authenticity is possible at this time, but suggests 
that it would be quite possible to test Joseph Smith's com- 
petence as a translator by examining not the Book of Mor- 
mon but another of his translations, that contained in the 
Pearl of Great Price under the title of the Book of Abraham. 
In this document, according to Bishop Spalding, "we have 
just the test we need of Joseph Smith's accuracy as a trans- 
lator." 03 

And he is right. Here we have at our disposal all the 
necessary resources for making an almost foolproof test. 
Moreover, it was Joseph Smith himself who first proposed 
and submitted to the test. When the papyri of the Book of 
Abraham first came into his hands, the Prophet, having 
learned that their owner, Michael H. Chandler, had gone 
out of his way to solicit the opinions of the experts in the 
big cities where he had exhibited his mummies, went into 
a room by himself and wrote out his interpretation of some 
of the symbols; then he invited Mr. Chandler to compare 
what he had written with the opinions of "the most 
learned." Chandler did so, and was properly impressed, 
voluntarily giving Joseph Smith a signed statement: 

". . . to make known to all who may be desirous, con- 
cerning the knowledge of Mr. Joseph Smith, Jun., in de- 
ciphering the ancient Egyptian hieroglyphic characters in 
my possession, which I have, in many eminent cities, showed 
to the most learned; and, from the information that I could 
ever learn, or meet with, I find that of Mr. Joseph Smith, 
Jun., to correspond in the most minute matters. [Signed:] 
Michael H. Chandler." 04 

Parley P. Pratt suggests that Chandler might have "on 
one occasion met with an individual who was enabled to 
decipher a small portion, or, at least, to give an opinion 

of what he supposed its meaning to be," since nobody in 
America could really read the stuff. 65 Orson Pratt put it 
differently: "Mr. C [handler] had also obtained from 
learned men the best translation he could of some few 
characters, which however, was not a translation, but more 
in the shape of their ideas with regard to it, their acquaint- 
ance with the language not being sufficient to enable them 
to translate it literally." 66 

Strangely enough, this last statement exactly fits Dr. 
Spalding's own eight experts, as we shall see. But whatever 
the competence of the informants, in Chandler's day or 
Spalding's, the point here is that it is Joseph Smith who 
actually suggests and carries out the very test the bishop 
devised. It was also Joseph Smith's idea, it will be recalled, 

"We have at our disposal 
all the necessary resources 
for making 
an almost foolproof test." 

to submit copies of the original writing from the plates of 
the Book of Mormon to the best scholars in America for 
their frank opinion. Granted again that nobody could read 
the "Anthon Transcript" either then or today, it was still 
very important for the leading antiquarians in the country 
to be given a chance to speak their piece, lest the world say 
forever after: "Joseph Smith never dared to show his mythi- 
cal manuscript to real scholars; he never gave the experts a 
chance to express an opinion about it!" Whatever opinions 
Professor Anthon expressed about the transcript, his letters 
show that he was indeed given ample opportunity to study 
the characters and express an opinion about them. 

The Prophet Joseph, then, is willing enough to undergo 
the most objective tests, but Bishop Spalding will not let 
him! The least the latter could have done would have been 
to follow the classic procedure used in the vindication of 
the cuneiform scholars many years before. In 1857 that 
same Ernest Renan who was loudly declaring Jesus to be a 
myth was telling the public that nobody could read cunei- 
form — that the Assyriologists were simply fooling themselves 
and others. So to* put everyone's mind at ease, Sir George 
Grote sent a cuneiform text to four scholars, requesting 
each one to give his interpretation of the thing; then it was 
a simple matter to compare the answers and let the public 
decide whether these men really knew what they were 
doing or not. 67 

This was obviously the procedure indicated for dealing 
with the Facsimiles. Joseph Smith had given his interpre- 
tation of the three ancient Egyptian documents and had 
challenged the world to give its own interpretation of the 

February 1968 


same. So one had only to do what Sir George did, that is, 
send the three Facsimiles from the Pearl of Great Price to 
various Egyptologists without comment, requesting each one 
to give his interpretation of them. Then Bishop Spalding 
could open the envelopes publicly and invite the world to 
compare the readings of the experts with each other and 
with Smith's ideas. What could be fairer and simpler? 
Joseph Smith had put all the ingredients for a clear and 
foolproof test into Spalding's hands, and even shown him 
how to go about it — and Spalding threw it all away! R. C. 
Webb observed, ". . . it might have occurred to an 'honest 
searcher after truth,' ... to have removed the captions from 
these figures. . . . Such an 'honest searcher' should have 
known perfectly well that 'scholars' would object to and 
denounce Smith as a 'scab translator.' " 68 That is, it was 
absolutely imperative to get the experts' opinions before 
showing them Smith's answer, just as the Prophet had 
handed his interpretations to Chandler before he knew what 
the others had said, leaving it to Mr. Chandler to compare 

But instead of calmly asking each scholar for his read- 
ing and then letting the public judge for itself, Bishop 
Spalding, as he reports it, sent "the original texts, together 
with his [Smith's] interpretations ... to competent schol- 
ars," with the idea that "if they declared his translation to 
be correct, then it must be accepted as true." 69 The ques- 
tion put to the specialists was not "What is your interpre- 
tation of these things?" but instead, "Here is what the 
notorious Joseph Smith says about these Egyptian docu- 
ments; is he right or wrong?" Stating the question thus 
not only made it very easy for the doctors to answer with 
a terse "yes" or "no," but also carefully set the stage to 
avoid any possible danger that one of the correspondents 
might in an unguarded moment drop a word in favor of 
Smith. Professor Pack observed that since Bishop Spalding 
"has evidently written for opinions to a large number of 
scholars" it might be in order to ask whether any replies 
more or less favorable to Joseph Smith had been withheld, 
"whether any disharmonious statements may have been 
received and not published," since the published letters are 
very few and very brief. 70 Even with such precautions, the 
bishop does not trust his jury, but prefaces their remarks 
with 17 pages of elaborate argument to demonstrate the 
impossibility of Joseph Smith's being a true prophet no 
matter what the experts may say. 

Of the letters that make up his book, Dr. Spalding re- 
ports: "It seemed necessary ... to copy in full the letters from 
the experts exactly as I secured them." 71 With such meticu- 
lous and commendable care to see that the reader knows just 
what is going on, it is strange indeed that the most impor- 
tant letter of all is missing, namely, the covering letter that 
went with the request for an opinion from each of the 
authorities. For that is the letter to which they are replying, 

the letter that set up the experiment and determined the 
state of mind in which each of the participants approached 
the problem. "This inquiry you claim to be of transcendent 
importance to the world," wrote Dr. John A. Widtsoe to 
Bishop Spalding later. "If you are sincere in this . . . you 
certainly would not be ready to pronounce final judgment 
on the basis of eight or eleven letters written in answer to, 
only Heaven knows, what questions you propounded." 72 
(Italics added.) As a scientist, Dr. Widtsoe knew that the 
most important thing in writing up an experiment is a 
minute and accurate account of the exact procedure followed 
— and that is precisely the part of the report that Dr. 
Spalding chose to omit. 

Whatever the covering letter said (and none was ever 

"... it is strange indeed 
that the most important letter 
of all is missing. . . .' : 

made public), it or they completely destroyed that atmo- 
sphere of cool and detached impartiality which Dr. Spalding 
declared himself so anxious to achieve. Dr. Mercer, the 
leader of the band, admits that "ill-temper was shown" 
and that "several of the scholars were disgusted at what 
they sincerely believed to be an imposition — 'righteous 
wrath,' perhaps." 73 But he insists that religion has nothing 
to do with this righteous wrath — "the letters were not 
prejudiced," 74 and he testifies as one of the jury "that 
Bishop Spalding did not in any way, either intentionally or 
unintentionally, prejudice the witnesses." 75 All he had to do 
to prejudice the whole company was simply to mention 
the name of Joseph Smith, but no, these men, though three 
of them are ministers of Spalding's church, expressed only "a 
scorn which was due to the crudeness of the linguistic work 
of the Prophet. . . . They condemned it purely on linguis- 
tic grounds." 70 To labor the point, since Mercer admits 
that it is a very important one, "the animus evident in the 
communications of Sayce and Petrie is purely because of 
linguistic, and not because of religious reasons." 77 Why 
linguistic animus in a field in which the experts are con- 
stantly correcting each other's translations? Is scientific 
animus any less prejudiced than religious animus? Mercer 
isn't kidding anybody: by bringing Joseph Smith into the 
picture from the very first, Bishop Spalding effectively 
loaded the dice — from then on only one game was possible. 

Some Basic Misconceptions 

Not only do all of Spalding's jury labor under certain 
serious misconceptions, but their verdict is in every case 


Improvement Era 





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Scholarly analysis of the scriptures that have 
been in the news recently, with the discovery of 
papyri formerly in the possession of Joseph Smith. 
This commentary is essential reading for all stu- 
dents of latter-day scripture. 

February 1968 


determined by those misconceptions. ". . . all the 
learned doctors," wrote Osborne J. P. Widtsoe, ". . . seem 
to have labored under the impression that the original 
manuscript of the Book of Abraham was available, that 
the three fac-similes . . . constitute that original manuscript, 
and that the inscriptions on those fac-similes were 'written 
by his [Abraham's] own hand.' To one who is acquainted 
with Church history, there could be made no representation 
farther from the truth than this of Bishop Spalding's con- 
cerning the Book of Abraham." 78 Yet it was on these three 
incorrect assumptions that the experts based all their argu- 
ments against Joseph Smith. Consider the three points. 

First of all, Joseph Smith did not draw the Facsimiles; 
they were the work of a professional wood engraver, Reuben 
Hedlock, who undertook the job on February 23, 1842, at 
the Prophet's request, and finished it just a week later. 79 
It was, as we shall see, a very creditable piece of work, but 
the miserable copies that Bishop Spalding circulated among 
his jury of experts made a very poor impression, and their 
raw clumsiness was in every case attributed to the Prophet 
himself. Some critics have noted that some of the numbers 
that have been added to Facsimile 2 are upside down, and 
have again assumed that Joseph Smith put them that way; 
but as R. C. Webb points out, "There is no evidence before 
us that Smith is responsible for it." 80 

The commonest objection to the authenticity of the 
Facsimiles is that they are of too late a date to have been 
drawn by Abraham. But Joseph Smith never claimed that 
they were autographic manuscripts or that they dated from 
the time of Abraham. ". . . with W. W. Phelps and Oliver 
Cowdery as scribes," he writes as of July 1835, "I com- 
menced the translation of some of the characters or hiero- 
glyphics, and much to our joy found that one of the rolls 
contained the writings of Abraham, another the writings of 
Joseph of Egypt." 81 (Italics added.) It is and was common 
to refer to any author's works as his writings, whether he 
penned them himself or dictated them to others. The Book 
of Mormon and the Pearl of Great Price itself, for example, 
are both writings of Joseph Smith, though written down 
entirely by the hands of other men and women. 

Men of such importance as Abraham and Joseph in 
Egypt would surely have followed the accepted custom and 
dictated their "writings" to scribes. The system is clear in 
the book of Jarom, verse 14, where we are referred to "the 
writings of the kings, or those which they caused to be 
written," and elsewhere in the Book of Mormon we are 
told of writings even "by the hand of" Mormon, Nephi, 
Moses, Omni, and others, and even "by the finger of God" 
(Alma 10:2), and also of a letter of Giddianhi sealed with 
his own hand — yet the plates from which the Book of 
Mormon was translated were largely the work of Mormon 
and were never seen by some of the men whose very hands 
supposedly had written them. As George Q. Cannon ex- 

plained, "These constituted the writings of Abraham — the 
text by Abraham's own hand; though there is nothing to show 
that this text had not been widely copied, and that this par- 
ticular [manuscript] may not, in fact, have been a copy 500 
years after Abraham's day." 82 J. M. Sjodahl assumes that it 
was a copy: "As the work proceeded, he [Joseph Smith] be- 
came convinced that one of the rolls of papyrus contained a 
copy of a book written by Abraham." 83 And Osborne Widt- 
soe opined that "this particular roll [the Book of Abraham] 
may or may not have been written by Abraham's own hand. 
Possibly it was a copy of Abraham's original manuscript." 84 
From the way the expression is used in the scriptures 
and by the brethren, it is clear that when a piece was said 
to be by its author's "own hand," what is meant is that 

"Joseph Smith 
never claimed they 
were autographic manuscripts 
. ... of Abraham." 

he originally wrote or dictated it. Even when Wilford 
Woodruff reports in his journal for February 18, 1842, that 
"Joseph the Seer has presented us some of the Book of 
Abraham, which was written by his own hand . . . ," it means 
that the Book of Abraham is not merely a book about 
Abraham, of which many are known in the apocryphal 
literature, but one actually written by him. Actually, what 
the Prophet "presented" to the Saints, who had seen the 
papyri a hundred times, was his own rendering of the book, 
which of course was not literally written by the hand of 

It was only to be expected, human nature being what 
it is, that the announcement that the writings of Abraham 
and Joseph had been found with some mummies should 
have promptly given rise to the rumor that Joseph Smith 
was in possession of "the bodies of Abraham, Abimelech, 
(the king of the Philistines), Joseph, who was sold into 
Egypt, &c, &c." And it was just as natural that the enemies 
of the Prophet should circulate the charge "that the pur- 
chasers of these antiquities" were spreading such rumors 
"for the purpose of attracting the attention of the multitude, 
and gulling the unwary." These reports, the Prophet wrote 
in December 1835, were "utterly false. Who these ancient 
inhabitants of Egypt were, I do not at present say." 85 He 
was not leaping at conclusions or claiming revelations on 
all things; indeed, the mummies did not particularly interest 
him, and he only consented to let Chandler have the high 
price he asked for them because he could procure the papyri 
in no other way: ". . . Mr. Chandler told him that he 
would not sell the writings, unless he could sell the mum- 


Improvement Era 

mies. . . ." 86 The mere sight of the mummies did not 
excite Joseph Smith, and neither did the rolls of papyri 
hefore he knew what was on them: they were just "some- 
thing rolled up . . . which, when examined, proved to be 
two rolls of papyrus." It was only after the mummies had 
been bought and the rolls examined that the brethren 
discovered, "much to our joy," how important they were. 87 
"The characters," Joseph Smith reported, "are such as you 
find upon coffins of mummies — hieroglyphs, etc.," that is, 
quite ordinary stuff, to look at them. 88 It is amusing to see 
how the Spalding specialists petulantly declare the Fac- 
similes, which they confess themselves unable to read, to 
be to all appearances nothing but perfectly ordinary Egyp- 
tian documents. Joseph Smith could have told them that. 

The Prophet made no dogmatic statement as to how 
the writings got in with the mummies, and Church mem- 
bers speculated freely on the subject. "It is supposed," 
wrote Parley P. Pratt, "they were preserved in the family 
of the Pharaoh and afterwards hid up in the embalmed 
body of the female with whom they were found." 89 The 
reporter of a local newspaper, after being shown the mum- 
mies by Mother Smith, wrote a satirical account of how 
Joseph in Egypt had a roll of papyrus, delivered to him in a 
wooden box — by an angel, of course — "which was to be 
buried by him with the family of one of the patriarchs . , . 
Joseph . . . depositing the case on the Queen's breast, where 
it lay until the discovery of the 'brass plates'. . . ." so 
Behind the usual garbling of the familiar motifs, one may 
detect another version of Brother Pratt's speculation. 

Actually, ancient Egyptian documents have been found 
buried with mummies of later date. The manuscript of the 
famous Ramesseum Dramatic Text, written to be buried 
with a king, was found laid away on the mummy of a 
private citizen 200 years after the time it was written — 
and even then it was copied down from still older sources. 
"How this manuscript . . . came into the private library 
of the . . . Theban in whose grave it was found," wrote 
Professor Sethe, "is a question which of course can never 
be answered." 91 It may not be without significance that 
our Pearl of Great Price mummies were also found in 
Thebes, and that some other mummies found there, notably 
those accompanied by those rare and peculiar documents 
known as hypocephali (Fac. 2 is a hypocephalus), had 
lying on their breasts just such rolls of papyri, apparently 
documents of considerable importance, but not well enough 
preserved to be read. 92 Mummies themselves were "often 
re-embalmed by the priests and toted from tomb to tomb — 
for centuries." 93 Furthermore, when documents became 
worn out from age or use it was quite proper to make a 
copy, which was thenceforth regarded exactly as if it were 
the original writings. 94 

Bishop Spalding's announcement that he submitted to 
the specialists "the original text," and that "the original 

texts with the Prophet's translation are available for our 
investigation" is simply not true. It makes all the difference 
in the world what particular text a scholar has to work 
with, as a comparison of the recently discovered original 
of Facsimile 1 with the copies of it that Spalding sent to the 
critics should make clear to anyone. O 

(To be continued) 


42 Maxence de Rochemonteix, Bibliotheque Egyptologique (Paris, 1894), Vol. 3, 
p. 3. 

■"A. H. Gardiner, Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, Vol. 9 (1924), p. 6. 

'"This theme was often discussed by G. Maspero, e.g. in Bibliotheque Egypto- 
logique, Vol. 29, pp. 269-276; Vol. 1 (1893), pp. viff, in which Maspero dis- 
cusses his own changing ideas. On the dangerous appeal of Egypt to amateurs, 
A. Weigall, Tutankhamen and Other Essays (London, 1923), Ch. 3, and The 
Glory of the Pharaohs (London, 1923), Ch. 5. 

"SR. C. Webb, Era, Vol. 17, p. 565. Webb paints an intellectual portrait 
of Spalding in this long article, pp. 565ff. 

■»°B. H. Roberts, Deseret News, Dec. 19, 1912, p. 11. 

4T Webb, op. cit., pp. 568ff, 577; the quote is from p. 569. 

^Roberts, Era, Vol. 16, p. 310. 

49 Osborne J. P. Widtsoe, Era, Vol. 16, p. 594, illustrating this by examples 
on pp. 595-97. - . . 

m New York Times, Magazine Section, Dec. 29, 1912, p. 3. 

^Frederick J. Pack, Era, Vol. 16, pp. 333-34. 

G2 R. C. Webb, Era, Vol. 17, p. 566, quoting from Spalding's Utah Survey. 

^New York Times, loc. cit., p. 1. 

"J. M. Sjodahl, Era, Vol. 16, p. 1100. 

K N. L. Nelson, Era, Vol. 16, p. 603. 

^Webb, op. cit., p. 565. 

^Editorial in Era, Vol. 16, p. 378; cf. New York Times, loc. cit., p. 1. 

r>8 R. C. Webb. See the remarks of E. J. Banks, Literary Digest, July 10, 1915, 
p. 67. 

59 The Banks article (see above) is fully discussed by Sterling B. Talmage in 
Era, Vol. 16, pp. 770-76. 

«F. S. Spalding, Era, Vol. 16, p. 611. 

•^Pack, op. cit., p. 334. 

62 Spalding, Joseph Smith as a Translator, p. 4. 

w Ibid., p. 18. 

^Documentary History of the Church, Vol. 2, p. 235, from The L.D.S. Mes- 
senger & Advocate, Vol. 3 (Dec. 1835), p. 235. 

^Parley P. Pratt, Millennial Star, Vol. 3 (July 1842), p. 46. 

69 Orson Pratt, Journal of Discourses, Vol. 20 (1878), p. 65. 

07 Encyclopedia Britannica, XI Edition (1910), Vol. 6, p. 308 (s.v. "Chron- 

ssWebb, Era, Vol. 16, p. 1078. 

69 Spalding, op. cit., p. 13. 

70 Pack, op. cit., p. 335. 

^Spalding, Era, Vol. 16, p. 611. 

72 John A. Widtsoe, Era, Vol. 16, p. 617. 

73 S. A. B. Mercer, The Utah Survey, Vol. 30, p. 12. 

■"Ibid., p. 10. 

^Ibid., p. 7. 

™Ibid., p. 9. 

"'"Ibid., p. 9. 

78 Osborne J. P. Widtsoe, Era, Vol. 16, p. 599. 

^DHC, Vol. 4, p. 518. 

8 °Webb, Era, Vol. 17, p. 324. 

^DHC, Vol. 2, p. 236. 

S2 George Q. Cannon, quoted by N. L. Nelson, op. cit., p. 606. 

^Sjodahl, op. cit., p. 1103. 

«*Osborne J. P. Widtsoe, op. cit., p. 600. 

&DHC, Vol. 2, p. 348. 

86 Orson Pratt, Journal of Discourses, Vol. 20, p. 65. 

s-'DHC, Vol. 2, p. 236. 

&lbid., p. 348. 

89 Parley P. Pratt, Millennial Star, Vol. 3 (July 1842), p. 46. 

^Warsaw Signal, Sept. 19, 1845, p. 2, cited by C. D. McOmber, A Study of 
the Criticism of the Book of Abraham (unpublished Master's thesis, Brigham 
Young University, Provo, 1960), pp. 17f. 

91 K. Sethe, Dramatische Texte zu altdgyptischen Mysterienspielen (Leipzig, 
1928), Vol. 2, p. 99. 

9L This is discussed below. 

93 C. W. Ceram, A Picture History of Archaeology (London: Thames & 
Hudson, 1959), p. 138. 

94 A classical instance is found in the introduction to the famous Shabaka 
Stone, where the king "orders a copy to be made which should be better than 
the earlier [original] one [lit., 'than its earlier condition']." — K. Sethe, op. 
cit., Vol. 1, pp. 4, 8, 21f. "Many very ancient books appeared in later 
transcriptions throughout Egyptian history," e.g., the Admonitions of Ptah- 
Hotep; "if, then, in similar fashion, Abraham also wrote a book, there is no 
essential absurdity in the supposition that a copy of it was found in the tomb 
of some persons who died even 1,000 or 1,500 years after his day." — R. C. Webb, 
Era, Vol. 17, p. 314. Whatever others, such as Wilford Woodruff, may have 
thought as to the age of the Facsimiles, Joseph Smith left no clear pronounce- 

February 1968 


m-u/'i-m-iiw'-iwi-nw- »/*////» -^in//< -./////)— //»//<— //////<■ -/////(].— mz WEMMEMIEEMEMEMEM 

Prepared by the 

department of the 

Major Genealogical 
Record Sources in 

^^- f#/y/ — J////J — j*iiiji — iff jjif — 'ijjy/u — >i/n i/i — tin > i> — /iifiif ^ — fuii/ — if//f/^ — /J/i)/* — t/n/f# — //////fj — ////i//y — /i///f// — mj|//f — iiiiij// — >//iif^^ — iu//7> f — >fi 

The chart and table contain 
major genealogical record 
sources of Sweden. The 
major sources are listed, 
together with type of rec- 
ord, period covered, type 
of information given, and 
source availability. Table 

A shows at a glance the 
record sources available for 
a research problem in a 
particular century. Table 
B provides more detailed 
information about the ma- 
jor records available. For 
example, if a pedigree 

problem is in the seven- 
teenth century, a quick 
indication can be obtained 
from Table A of the 
sources available for that 
period. Reference to Table 
B will then provide more 
complete information. 










1. Emigration Records 

2. Lutheran Membership Movements 

3. Lutheran Clerical Survey 

4. Lutheran Catechistical Records 

5. Probate Records 

6. Land Records 

7. Lutheran Communion Records 

8. Census Records 


9. Tax Lists 

10. Court Records 

11. Lutheran Parish Registers 

12. Trade Guild Records 

13. Lutheran Church Accounts 

14. Provincial Accounts 

15. Military Records 

16. House of Nobility 





^ l -iiiii l -iii(/i<--iilf/fi--iffllli\--//fiiii-iji|i/H--ii||i/i-iillli>— tfflti/* — f//f\i/^ — f/f/ft/- — 'f/Ufil— f/fffl/-- Ul/// — uOffi — t/tff«« — *fif///* — f/f//i — //f///i — -///Ay/ — ■///</// — 


Improvement Era 

y* — w/7/i' — mm* — jf/ii// — *iMf/J — /iifi/-> iBiiy — "Miif* — >»iiftf/# — wiii/f — niitf — -jfi///^ — *mj//#. — yiiniif — Mtffii* — «inw» — 'imin — nuin— "UBiu — nini— intlTi 111 "* ^^" 

Illustrated by Sherry Thompson 

f/i- >//if///~ i///i)i-iip-ii//iiii-/Hii<ii-^)ii-'iniii'--iiii[ii- mm 

— iniiHilu- mEM=dMt3Mi IE: li fe 








Larsson Brothers & Company Emigration 
Agency: correspondence between the emi- 
gration agency and persons inquiring about 
emigration; names of correspondents and 
their residences in Sweden; sometimes names 
of relatives and their residences both in 
Sweden and abroad 

Provincial archives, Goteborg; on 
film (Genealogical Society) 

from 1869 

City Police Records: lists of persons leaving 
Sweden through various ports, their names, 
places of residence or places of birth, ages 
or dates of birth, destination in foreign land, 
relationships of persons traveling as a family 

City and provincial archives; some 
on film (GS) 

1851 to 

Government Emigration Records: names of 
persons emigrating, their ages, sometimes 
year or date of birth, occupations, places 
of residence at time of emigration, country 
of destination, relationships 

1851-1940 on film (GS) ; 1851 to 
present, National Central Bureau 
of Statistics, Stockholm 

18th C to 
19th C 

Passport Journals: information varies; name 
of person obtaining passport, date when ob- 
tained, destination, occupation 

On film (GS); city of departure; 
provincial archives; Royal War Ar- 
chives, Stockholm 



Certificates of 

Earliest in 
the late 
17th C; 
1800 to 

Names of parsons moving in or out of the 
parish, places of former and new residence, 
marital status, sometimes date and place of 

Earliest to 1860 on film (GS); pro- 
vincial archives; 1860 to present 
in local parish custody 





1800 to 


Same as above but sometimes with more de- 
tail; information varies 

Same as above 

Rolls) _ 


Names of parishioners, dates of birth or 
ages, places of birth, occupations, relation- 
ships, marriage data, dates of death, places 
of residence, arrivals and removals, legiti- 
macy of children, marital status, rating on 
religious knowledge; information varies, es- 
pecially before 1800; evolved from Lutheran 
catechistical records (see no. 4) and super- 
seded by the parish records (see item imme- 
diately following) 

Earliest to approx 1890 on film 
(GS) ; earliest to approx 1860, pro- 
vincial archives; 1860-1895, local 
parish custody 

Parish Records 



1896 to 

Succeeded the clerical survey; the informa- 
tion recorded is approximately the same as 
the clerical survey 

Local parish custody 

Abstracts for 
each ten-year 

1860 to 

Abstracts taken from the above two records 
for statistical purposes; information similar 
to above but more brief 

1860, 1870, 1880, 1890 on film (GS) ; 
1860 to present, National Central 
Bureau of Statistics, Stockholm 


— tf/y»» — //ff/tf — will ii — fif/ 1 p - w/yi— mi/f/r — <t i itu^^inw- — wwhwwi, -*\m -min- m*- - "//ft* -'</m- //flu -///ho-///iih - 


i—\MAii —mm -<///»-n///- jJEJjjjjj — «#/jy# — ii ju//» — «#n//#i — ■■!#/ 1 1 — i/i/fliu -if////// — n///iiu- /i//fli'-fiii/Hi(///Hi«V 

^^^~ ■ ' I I I 1^11 1-1... I I i n I ... .... ■ ..I- ii. I " ' S^M 

February 1968 



Landsarkivet in Uppsala com- 
prises the Ian of Stockholm, 
Uppsala, Sbdermanland, Ore- 
bro, Vastmanland and Kop- 
parberg. Address : Slottet, 

Landsarkivet in Vadstena 
comprises the Ian of Ostergbt- 
land, Jbnkbping, Kronoberg 
and Kalmar. Address : Slottet, 

Landsarkivet in Visby for 
the Ian of Gotland. Address: 
Visborgsgatan 1, Visby. 
Landsarkivet in Lund com- 
prises the Ian of Blekinge, 
Kristianstad, Malmohus and 
Halland. Address : Dalby- 
vagen 4, Lund. 

Landsarkivet in Gbteborg 
comprises the Ian of Gbteborg 
och Bohus, Alvsborg, Skara- 
borg and Varmland. Address : 
Geijersgatan 1, Gbteborg. 
Landsarkivet in Harnbsand 
comprises the Ian of Gavle- 
borg, Vasternorrland, Vas- 
terbotten and Norrbotten. 
Address : Nybrogatan 17, 

Landsarkivet in ostersund 
for the Ian of Jamtland. Ad- 
dress: Museiplan, Ostersund. 
Stadsarkivet in Stockholm for 
the city of Stockholm. Ad- 
dress : Kungsklippan 61, 
Stockholm 8. 

Stadsarkivet in Malmb for 
the city of Malmb. Address: 
Ostergatan 32, Malmb C. 
Stadsarkivet in Boras for the 
city of Boras. Address : Stads- 
huset, Boras. (All church 
records in Boras, however, 
have been transferred to 
Landsarkivet in Gbteborg.) 
Stadsarkivet in Vasteras. Ad- 
dress: Stadshuset, Vasteras. 
(All church records in Vas- 
teras, however, have been 
transferred to Landsarkivet 
in Uppsala.) 

Riksarkivet (The National 
Archives). Address: Arkiv- 
gatan 3, Stockholm. 
Kammararkivet (The Carri- 
er al Archives). Address: 
Birger Jarlstorg 13, Stock- 
holm 2. 

Kungliga Utrikesdepartemen- 
tets arkiv (The Archives of 
the Foreign Office). Address: 
Gustaf Adolfs torg, Stock- 
holm 16. 

Riddarhusets arkiv (The Ar- 
chives of the House of Nobil- 
ity) . Address : Riddarhuset, 
Stockholm 2. 

Statistiska centralbyrans ar- 
kiv (The Archives of the 
Central Bureau of Statistics) . 
Address : Linnegatan 87, 
Stockholm O. 

Kungliga Krigsarkivet (The 
War Archives). Address: 
Banergatan 64, Stockholm 5. 













Names of certain parishioners, occupations, 
residences, relationships, marital status, 
sometimes ages; superseded by the clerical 
survey (see item no. 3) 

On film (GS) ; provincial archives 


1660 to 

Name of deceased, sometimes date of death; 
names of heirs, ages, sometimes dates of 
birth; residences, guardians, relationships, 
real and personal property and its distribu- 

Approx 1660-1860 on film (GS) ; 
1660 to present, provincial or city 
archives, district court archives, cir- 
cuit courts of appeal (nobility) 

6. LAND 



Names of land owners and tenants, resi- 
dences, valuation of land 

On film (GS) ; provincial archives; 
copy at Cameral Archive (Kammar- 
arkivet), Stockholm 



from 1628, 
18th-19th C 

Names of communicants, residences, rela- 
tionships, marital status, occupations, some- 
times ages; superseded by clerical survey 
(see item no. 3) 

On film (GS); provincial archives 



1620 to 

Name of head of household, residence, some- 
times names of wife and children over age 
15 and other relatives, especially since ap- 
prox 1900; information varies widely, but the 
later the census, the more detailed the in- 

Earliest to 1750, then each 5 years 
to 1860 on film (GS); 1620 to pres- 
ent, provincial archives; copy at 
Cameral Archives, Stockholm 



Names of landowners and tenants 

On film (GS) ; provincial archives; 
copy at Cameral Archives, Stock- 

10. COURT 


1620 to 

Decisions in criminal trials, transfers of 
real estate, marriage settlements, guardian- 
ships, mortgages, miscellaneous judiciary 

1620-1860 on film (GS); earlier 
records of the magistrate courts 
(Radhusratt) and the assize courts 
(Haradsratt) at provincial archives; 
copies _at the circuit courts of appeal 
(Hovratt) ; more recent records in 
local court custody 



1686 to 

Births: names of persons born and christened, 
dates of birth and christening, legitimacy of 
children, names of parents, father's occupa- 
tion and residence, sometimes age of mother; 
names of witnesses at christening and their 
residence, occupations, sometimes relation- 

Marriages: names of candidates, their places 
of residence and date of marriage, sometimes 
ages and names of parents or sponsors, 
also information regarding former marriages 

Deaths: names of deceased, their dates of 
death and burial, ages, places of residence 
at time of death, occupations, conditions, 
causes of death; sometimes biographical in- 
formation, particularly in Vastmanland and 
Kopparberg Counties 

Earliest to approx 1860 on film 
(GS); provincial archives; 1860 to 
present, local parish custody 

NOTE. Transcripts 1860-1947 at 
National Central Bureau of Stat- 
istics, Stockholm; transcripts 1860- 
1892 on film (GS) 

12. TRADE 



Minutes, names of members and those seek- 
ing membership; sometimes proof of age, 
parentage, and birthplace 

On film (GS); Nordiska Museet, 
Stockholm; some in various city 



16th C, 
from middle 
of 17th C 
to 18th C 

Accounts of expenses and contributions; 
names and residence of persons who receive 
payment for services rendered to the church; 
names and residence of persons contributing 
monetary gifts at church functions such as 
christenings, weddings, and burials; relation- 

On film (GS); provincial archives 



Names and residences of landowners and 

On film (GS) ; National Archives 
(Riksarkivet), Stockholm 



1537 to 

Rotations and inductions: names of military 
personnel, residence 

General muster rolls: names of personnel of 
all ranks, usually province of birth, age, 
death or discharge; information varies 

Pension and salary lists: names of officers 
and non-commissioned officers only; some- 
times names of relatives; monetary data 

Biographical records: names of officers and 
civilian employees only; dates and places 
of birth, marriage, and death; parentage; 
appointments; information varies 

1537-1869 on film (GS); 1537 to 
present, Royal War Archives 
(Kungliga Krigsarkivet), Stock- 
holm; local enrollment offices 

NOTE. Refer to the various print- 
ed regimental histories and to Lew- 
enhaupt's works "The Officers of 
King Karl XII" (Karl XII:s 



15th C 
to present 

Names of those introduced and accepted into 
the House of Nobility; pedigrees listing their 
progenitors to the earliest known ancestor; 
names of spouse and children; dates of birth, 
marriage, and death; residences, offices and 
commissions received; occupations; relation- 

Some in print and on film (GS) ; 
the Archives of the House of No- 
bility [Riddarhusets arkiv), Stock- 

NOTE — There are many rural and city parishes that have been given the right to retain their 
church books at the parish archives and are exempt by law from the obligation to 
deliver their older church books to the provincial archives. These parishes are located 
mainly in Kopparberg and Orebro Counties. 


Improvement Era 

Lest We Forget 

The Word of Wisdom 

By Albert L. Zobell, Jr. 

Research Editor 

• "This winter [1832-33]/' wrote the Prophet Joseph 
Smith, "was spent in translating the Scriptures; in 
the School of the Prophets; and sitting in conferences. 
I had many glorious seasons of refreshing. The gifts 
which follow them that believe and obey the Gos- 
pel, as tokens that the Lord is ever the same in His 
dealings with the humble lovers and followers of 
truth, began to be poured out among us, as in an- 
cient days. . . ." (Documentary History of the Church, 
Vol. 1, p. 322.) 

Then he records simply: 

"February 27 [1833].— I received the following rev- 
elation: ... A Word of Wisdom, for the benefit of 
the . . . church . . . ." (Ibid., page 327.) 

Then he records the glorious counsel and prom- 
ises found therein. 

Speaking to the Saints at Provo, Utah, some 35 
years later, February 8, 1868, President Brigham Young 

"When the school of the prophets was inaugurated 
one of the first revelations given by the Lord to His 
servant Joseph was the Word of Wisdom. . . . The 
prophet began to instruct [the elders] how to live 
that they might be the better prepared to perform 
the great work they were called to accomplish. I 
think I am as well acquainted with the circum- 
stances which led to the giving of the Word of Wis- 
dom as any man in the Church, although I was not 
present at the time to witness them. The first school 
of the prophets was held in a small room situated 
over the Prophet Joseph's kitchen, in a house which 
belonged to Bishop Whitney, and which was at- 
tached to his store, which store probably might be 
about fifteen feet square. In the rear of this building 
was a kitchen, probably ten by fourteen feet, con- 
taining rooms and pantries. Over this kitchen was 
situated the room in which the Prophet received rev- 
elations and in which he instructed his brethren. 
The brethren came to that place for hundreds of 
miles to attend school in a little room probably no 
larger than eleven by fourteen. When they assem- 
bled together in this room after breakfast, the first 
they did was to light their pipes, and, while smoking, 
talk about the great things of the kingdom, and spit 
all over the room, and as soon as the pipe was out 
of their mouths a large chew of tobacco would 

then be taken. Often when the Prophet entered the 
room to give the school instructions he would find 
himself in a cloud of tobacco smoke. This, and 
the complaints of his wife at having to clean so 
filthy a floor, made the Prophet think upon the 
matter, and he inquired of the Lord relating to the 
conduct of the Elders in using tobacco, and the reve- 
lation known as the Word of Wisdom was the 
result of his inquiry." (Journal of Discourses, Vol. 12, 
pp. 157-58.) 

The Word of Wisdom immediately became part 
of the teachings of the Church. The Prophet records 
that in 1837 the presidency of the Church at Far 
West, Missouri, called a general meeting in which it 
was "resolved unanimously, that we will not fellow- 
ship any ordained member who will not, or does not, 
observe the Word of Wisdom according to its literal 
reading." (DHC, Vol. 2, p. 482.) Christmas day 1837 
"was the first public conference of the Church in 
England, and at this conference the Word of Wis- 
dom was first publicly taught in that country." 
(DHC, Vol. 2, p. 529.) At the first quarterly conference 
at Far West, April 7, 1838, "President Joseph Smith, 
Jun., made a few remarks on the Word of Wisdom, 
giving the reason of its coming forth, saying it should 
be observed." (DHC, Vol. 3, p. 15.) 

"It is a piece of good counsel which the Lord de- 
sires His people to observe, that they may live on 
the earth until the measure of their creation is full," 
said President Brigham Young in 1868. "This is the 
object the Lord had in view in giving that Word of 
Wisdom. To those who observe it He will give great 
wisdom and understanding, increasing their health, 
giving strength and endurance to the faculties of 
their bodies and minds until they shall be full of 
years upon the earth. This will be their blessing if 
they will observe His word with a good and willing 
heart and in faithfulness before the Lord." (JD, 
Vol. 12, p. 156.) 

The twentieth century is a marvelous age in which 
to live. It is an age in which science has confirmed 
much of the Word of Wisdom. We now scientifically 
know what the nineteenth century Saints accepted 
on faith concerning the great truths of the Word of 
Wisdom. The promises of the Lord are the same in 
all ages to all peoples. O 

February 1968 


• It was six a.m. when Olataga 
Masiasomua reached the mission 
home at Pesega, but it was scarce- 
ly daylight because of the heavy 
clouds. Strong gusts of wind drove 
the rain almost horizontally against 
her as she ran up the steps. What 
a day for a district conference! 
What a day to be president of the 
mission YWMIA! The trip to 
Fagaloa Bay was no picnic in good 
weather, and with a storm brewing 
she would be lucky to have a hand- 
ful of people show up for the con- 

When Ola entered the office of 
President Burton H. Price, some of 
the MIA board members were al- 
ready waiting. After prayer, Presi- 
dent Price, his counselor Lauvale 

The Hurricane 
and Olataga 
of Samoa 

By Coy 

Illustrated by 
Ed Maryon 

Tialavea, and the six MIA people 
climbed into the mission pickup 
truck. Some of the board mem- 
bers had borrowed raincoats from 
the elders. Others huddled under 
lavalavas, trying to keep out the 
wind and the sporadic bursts of 

The road to Fagaloa winds along 
the coast for 15 miles or so, then 
climbs the mountain and drops 
precipitously down to the bay. Un- 
til a few years ago the only way 
to reach Fagaloa was to take a boat 
from Apia or to drive to the top of 
the mountain and walk down a 
trail. Now a narrow, rocky road 
has been built to the first two 

As the truck bumped along the 
coastal road, Ola apprehensively 
watched the muddy, white-capped 
surf lashing the shore. This was 
going to be a real storm. Before 
they reached the top of the moun- 
tain, they passed plantations where 
the banana trees were broken off 
or knocked down. 

They had just rounded the curve 
at the top, ready to start the 
descent, when the truck jerked to a 
stop. The road was blocked by 
two large trees. On the other side 
of the trees sat two buses whose 
disgruntled passengers were wait- 
ing to go to Apia. There seemed to 
be no way to move the trees until 
Ola remembered that in the MIA 
supplies was a rope they had 
brought for a tug-of-war in the 
afternoon activity session. With 
the rope, the lead bus was able to 
back down the hill and drag the 
trees off the road. Then the truck 
backed up the hill to let the buses 
pass. The whole operation took al- 
most two hours. 

The truck had just reached Lona 
Branch when the storm struck with 
increased fury. Before they could 
jump from the truck and run into 
the fale, the conference visitors 
were drenched with rain. During 
the afternoon the hurricane intensi- 

Improvement Era 

Bed until they were only able to 
hold one short meeting with the 
branch MIA officers who had 

As the wind rose, breadfruit 
trees were uprooted and banana 
trees flattened. When the woven 
blinds were torn from the fale 
where the visitors were staying, the 
Saints took the heavy mats from the 
floor and nailed them between the 
posts to keep out the rain. Some- 
how the Saints of the branch were 
able to provide food for the visitors 
even after the cooking houses were 
blown down. 

Sleep was impossible. The roar 
of the wind and rain was punctu- 
ated by the cracking of branches 
and the sound of ripping leaves. 
At intervals a tree would crash to 
the ground, and always in the 
background was the ominous 
pounding of the surf. 

During the night the Saints from 
Ma'asina Branch, who had come 
for the conference, had to run to 
the safety of another fale before 
theirs was blown down. In the 
fale where Ola stayed, an elder who 
had been lying on the floor near 
President Price found that a heavy 
kava bowl had been hurled by the 
wind across the floor to within a 
few inches of his head. 

When daylight came, President 
Price and President Tialavea de- 
cided that it would be impossible 
to hold conference and that they 
would try to get back to Pesega 
when the wind calmed down a 
little. By noon the storm was be- 
ginning to subside, although the 
wind still came in sudden hard 
gusts, and it was still raining. They 
considered leaving the truck there 
and walking out, but President Tia- 
lavea said he thought he could 
drive it out if some of the Saints 
would walk ahead to help clear 
the road. Six men volunteered. 

They had worked their way 
about halfway to the top when they 
were met by two men who said 

February 1968 

that it was impossible to get out. 
President Tialavea took the truck 
back down to Ma'asina Branch and 
left it. Then the group began to 
climb the mountain. They were 
tired, wet, cold, and hungry when 
they reached the top. They walked 
on toward home and had almost 
reached Falefa when they were 
picked up by two elders in a 

When they reached Kanana 
Branch, Olataga was astonished to 
be able to look up and see Sauniatu 
at the top of the hill. The trees 
that had always obscured it before 
had been leveled. 

It was beginning to get dark 
when Olataga and Oli Manuo be- 
gan the four-mile climb to Sauniatu, 
where Olataga teaches at the 
Church school. Her sodden clothes 
clung to her, and her arms and legs 
were scratched from climbing over 
fallen trees. As she stumbled over 
rocks and branches, it seemed she 
would never reach the top. 

Finally, they were on level 
ground and could hear the river. 
They were almost home. But at 
the bank they met Nofo Ti'i and 
three students who were returning 
to school after the weekend at 
home. The river had risen several 
feet over the bridge and it was 
impossible to cross it. 

Nofo and Oli decided that if they 
went upstream to a not-so-rocky 

place, they would be able to swim 
across. Ola was terrified at the 
thought of jumping into the dark, 
churning water, but the two men 
helped the students across and 
came back for her. After much 
coaxing and reasoning, they per- 
suaded her to swim across between 
them. She plunged in. 

As the cold, swirling water 
sucked her down, she began to 
swim for her life. The current was 
so strong that several times she 
thought she could not possibly 
make it across. Then one of the 
men would shout to her to swim 
and she would struggle harder. At 
last she was able to touch bottom, 
and they helped her scramble up 
the bank. She lay on the grass, 
shivering and panting for breath, 
grateful to be alive. The wind was 
dying. The storm was almost over. 
Tomorrow she would have to start 
planning for the next conference, 
the sports tournaments, and the 
youth conferences, and she needed 
a new girls' program secretary, but 
tonight she was just too tired to 
worry about it. . . . O 

Coy Harmon, who was in Samoa with 
her schoolteacher husband when this 
incident took place, is a member of the 
Pleasant View (Provo, Utah) Second 

''Olataga Masiasomua 

Where does al) 

Turning Financial Folly Into Family Fun (Part 2) 

• "Finance is the number one cause 
of family arguments" is the con- 
clusion of some of those who make 
a study of family problems. Open 
disagreements over money matters 
are not the only bad fruits. Ten- 
sions caused from worry about 
overdue bills, fretting over where 
the next house payment will come 
from, anger toward a husband or 
wife for a "foolish," unplanned 
purchase, and disappointment in 
having to see children do without 
may result in sharp words and 
flaming tempers. Peace cannot 
abide in a home where anxiety over 
financial matters represses expres- 
sions of love and crowds out 

With our understanding of the 
sacred and eternal nature of the 
family, it behooves every good 
Latter-day Saint to take steps to 
reduce discord in the home. If 
handling money is a prime source 
of disharmony, efforts made to 
eliminate the difficulty will result 
in a strengthening of the bonds of 
love and peace in each home. 

A first step in turning financial 
folly into family fun is to find out: 
Where does it all go? 

The best way to do this is to keep 
a book in which the family can 
record what money is spent. The 
total figures for each month will 
show what happened to the money. 
It is interesting to note that people 
with larger incomes and higher 
standards of living use budgets 
more frequently than those who live 
in more modest circumstances. 

From almost any variety store, 
stationery store, or department 

store, one can purchase a "family 
expense record" book for as little 
as 39 cents, but under any circum- 
stances, there is no need to pay 
more than a dollar. Get a book 
with columns that are labeled, 
i.e., housing, food, church, etc., and 
then all you do is fill in the blanks. 
Also, make sure that one open page 
will cover one month. 

After the family has recorded 
two or three months' outgo, average 
up the amount in each category 
and use this as the basis for your 

budget ( planned expenditures ) . 
Let the family counsel together and 
determine where they would like 
to tighten up so as to provide more 
money for a category that yields 
more satisfaction. 

One family drives secondhand 
cars and drinks powdered milk be- 
cause putting more into a home 
brings greater satisfaction. Another 
finds great joy in new cars but 
spends a minimum on clothes and 
other items. 

Don't try to make a budget like 

Suggested Allocation of Take-Home Pay 1 

$5,000 to $7,000 

$10,000 to $12,000 


Tithing 2 












Rent or mortgage payments and 
household operations ( utilities ) 
Home furnishings and household 





Clothing, including laundry 

and cleaning 









Medical and dental care 




Transportation and automobile 
Personal allowances, entertain- 



ment, H.O.K. 3 and miscellaneous 




Gifts and subscriptions 



1 Take-home pay should be gross income less deductions for taxes and Social 
Security. It should include any deductions for such items as insurance and 
credit union. 

2 10% of gross income normally amounts to approximately 12% of take-home 
pay. This amount will vary, however, according to the number of dependents. 

3 "Heaven-Only-Knows." 


Improvement Era 

By Quinn G. McKay, Ph.D. 

Dean, School of Business and Economics, Weber State College 

that of the neighbors. Let your 
planned expenditures be an expres- 
sion of the desires and goals of 
your family. Remember: the bud- 
get is the expression of the entire 
family. Also, if you add to one 
category, you must subtract from 

For those who would like some 
guidelines from which a family 
can start planning, here is a starter. 
The chart on page 28 is based on an 
average family of five or six. It 
should be adjusted to meet special 
needs of your family and according 
to the number of dependents and 
amount of deductions. Percentages 
are based on take-home pay, so the 
family can plan how to allocate 
actual amounts of money available. 
Therefore, the percentage for tith- 
ing may vary, according to differ- 
ences between gross pay and 
take-home pay. 

Just one further note about 
budgeting: To spend a whole 
evening fretting because you can't 
find what happened to 23 cents is 
poor budgeting. Put in an "H.O.K." 
( "Heaven-Only-Knows" ) account, 
because each month money may 
seem to disappear just as though 
the mice ate it. Allow for this, and 
don't fight over it as long as it is 
not out of line. 

After a budget has been de- 
cided upon, a once-a-month family 
finance council should be held. The 
purpose is twofold: 

1. To help the family members 
psychologically to see that there are 
limits to how much money is avail- 

2. To train them to learn that 

there are helpful devices for man- 
aging money. 

3. To help them see that what 
they do each day can affect the 
amount of money that is available 
for other things. 

When family members are cog- 
nizant of waste and of belongings 
that are ill cared for, then the 
budget is controlled every day of 
the month, not just once a month 
at family council night. Thus, a 
family budget council is designed 
to help members of the household 
to be conscious of where the money 
is going each day. 

Each month sit down at a table 
with the family finance book 
opened to the previous month's 
record. First, select for detailed 
review the accounts most out of 
line. ( Going into everything in de- 
tail would be boring.) Talk about 
why these accounts are out of line, 
and relate the why to everyday ex- 
periences. If the electricity bill is 
high, discuss how family members 
can be "light switch conscious." If 
extra shoes had to be purchased, 
discuss the care of shoes and what 
water does to leather. If an ap- 
pliance had to be repaired or 
replaced, explain the value of 
maintenance, use, and proper stor- 
age of equipment. This can also 
be done with care of clothes, furni- 
ture, expensive foods, and enter- 
tainment. Relating items to specific 
dollar amounts helps to build a 
consciousness of values and costs. 

Second, call attention to ac- 
counts in which expenses were less 
than budgeted. Here may be a 
chance to hand out a bouquet or 

two to members of the family. Dur- 
ing the month father or mother 
should make note of expense-saving 
behavior and mention it in family 

Third, save until last the special 
savings account. That is going to 
provide for a piano, color tele- 
vision set, vacation, bicycle, mis- 
sion, or college. Let each person 
see how much closer the acquisi- 
tion is. Spend a few minutes 
planning for the purchase by look- 
ing at catalogues or discussing 
the individual preferences of fam- 
ily members regarding it. If it is 
a vacation fund, spend the winter 
months in anticipation. Dreaming, 
talking, and finding information 
about potential vacation spots can 
bring added months of joy for a 
10-day trip. 

1. Review only what has been 
set aside as the family budget. 
Mother and father may want to 
keep business finances, investments, 
and other matters private, espe- 
cially if the family is young and 
cannot keep confidences. 

2. Don't make this a long ses- 
sion; particularly, don't dwell too 
long on negative aspects and 
preachments. Every needed lesson 
cannot be taught in one night. 
There will be another night next 

3. Don't use the family finance 
council as a punishment or to 
expose or embarrass a spender in 
the family. This meeting is for 
education, not retribution. 

4. Do everything possible in 
steps two and three to make it an 

February 1968 


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30 Improvement Era 

"Those who save what is left over usually have no savings, 

emotionally rewarding experience, cheaper, but you also often con- fit family needs three months from 

Do not conduct it in such a way sume more when you think there now. Don't give away your flexi- 

that the family comes to dread is plenty. Use self-restraint. bility and monthly control over 

finance council night. The family Try things that are less expen- expenditures. Preserve flexibility 

can learn that money properly sive, like powdered milk. People's and be free so the family can 

handled can bring lots of family tastes adjust. Even mixing three- change its mind next month, 

fun and satisfaction. fourths powdered and one-fourth 7. Don't be afraid to buy good 

Controlling the budget is a mat- whole milk makes the milk cost used items: furniture, appliances, 

ter of attitude— as much psychology about 15 cents a quart, which is a cars. Careful shopping here can 

as finance. It is a matter of per- big savings over 28 cents a quart result in significant savings, 

sonal self-restraint. for whole milk. Children usually 8. Teach the family to take care 

Spending Tips consume as much inexpensive pea- of things. Lessons on care of cloth- 

1. Tithing (the Lord's portion) nut butter as they do the expensive ing can be an excellent expenditure 
should always be set aside or paid brands. of time and may result in many 
the very first. 4. Pay cash. At each purchase, dollars saved. Care of furniture 

2. Savings should be put away seeing actual dollars disappear or may require making the living room 
next. Payroll deductions for credit the bank account balance diminish off limits for food or jumping, 
union or automatic bank savings is a good regular reminder and has 9. Make special savings accounts, 
are good. Those who never save a good psychological restraining Save for a color television set or 
must invariably borrow. People effect. other special purchase. At the 
who save what is left over prac- 5. Don't buy on first visit of monthly family budget review, save 
tically never have a savings door-to-door salesmen or at the this account until last. Then let the 
account. first store when looking at a major family see together how much 

3. In buying food, use a shop- purchase. Educate yourself. Com- nearer they are to that new TV. 
ping list and then stick with it. pare prices and features until you This can be the positive side. 
This forces planning and also helps satisfy yourself. Learn what to Budgeting need not be all "no" 
one to resist impulse buying, look for or what is important in a and tears. Budget for things, not 
Merchants devise every means pos- washing machine, or piano, or fur- just against spending. 

sible to get shoppers to give in to niture. Take time to analyze and 10. Don't overextend on house 
impulses and buy more than they raise questions while not under the buying. Do not buy a house that 
really need. smooth talk or charisma of a tal- costs more than two and a half 
Shop not more than once a week, ented salesman. His product is times your annual income. Monthly 
Try every other week. It can be probably what he says it is, but housing costs (principal, interest, 
done. Again, it will force better only you can decide if it is the best insurance, and property taxes) 
planning, and you can save money, expenditure of limited funds for should not exceed one-fourth of 
Shop the sales. Buy in case lots your family. your monthly take-home pay. 
only at sale time. By using and 6. Be reluctant to obligate your- 11. Watch automobile expenses 
restocking your year's supply, you selves to long-run purchase schemes closely. It costs more to drive a 
can go from one sale to another on and other programs without thor- car than you think, 
many items. Planning clothing ough investigation. They may or With wise planning and self- 
purchases can also help you take may not provide all the savings restraint, financial folly can be 
advantage of sales, thus helping pictures. More important, long-run turned into family fun and con- 
make the money go further. Beware schemes lock you into something tribute to harmony in the home 
of jumbo sizes. They are often that looks good today but may not rather than disharmony. O 

February 1968 31 


People over 65 get the cash they need to help 
fill the gaps in Medicare. 

Life's more fun when you feel secure against 
medical bills. It's twice the fun knowing you 11 
get money back for staying healthy. Sick or 
well you must collect. 

Experts find 

You need not be over 65 to gain from Medicare 

■ There are two important things 
people of all ages should realize about 
the government's new "Medicare" 
program of health protection for peo- 
ple over 65. 

Most men and women over 65 al- 
ready know that Medicare will not 
pay all their hospital, medical and 
surgical bills. They realize they need 
added protection to supplement Medi- 
care and avoid an expensive loss. 
More about that later. 

But few people under 65 realize 
that they, too, can gain from Medi- 
care. A little-known part of the new 
Medicare bill (21 3a IRC) gives people 
a much bigger tax deduction on their 
health insurance premiums, starting 
this year. So your health insurance 
can end up costing you less. 

And now you can also get a revo- 
lutionary new kind of health insur- 
ance protection plan that returns 
money to you when you no longer 
need the protection because of 

When Medicare starts for you, this 
remarkable new low cost plan of pro- 

tection will give you a big cash refund 
if you stayed well and didn't need the 
plan's benefits. Simply keep it in 
force until then, and you get paid a 
substantial cash "nest-egg"' to enjoy 
during your retirement years — to save 
or spend as you wish. This extra cash 
can add important security to your 
retirement. Or you can use it for 
travel, a car, or for other things to 
help you enjoy retirement more. 

Like ordinary health insurance, 
this new plan pays you tax-free cash 
benefits if you do get sick or hurt. It 
pays you regardless of other hospital, 
medical or surgical insurance you 
may have. And with today's higher- 
than-ever medical expenses, 9 out of 
10 families urgently need added pro- 

But unlike ordinary plans, this low 
cost plan means you no longer have 
to be sick or hurt to collect. Instead 
of paying premiums which return 
no money if you have no claims, you 
get a big cash refund at maturity. In 
effect, you've built up an extra sav- 
ings account. 

Even if you do use up part of the 
benefits, you can still get a refund. If 
you collect less than what you've paid 
in annualized premiums, you get a 
refund of the difference. Sick or well, 
you must collect. 

This revolutionary new kind of pro- 
tection is offered by Bankers Life and 
Casualty Co. of Chicago as part of 
the famous White Cross Plan protect- 
ing over 6,000,000 Americans. And 
the White Cross Plan also includes 
new low cost protections specially de- 
signed to help people over 65 fill the 
gaps in Medicare. 

The story of Medicare's new tax 
savings, plus the remarkable "Money- 
Back" plan and special "Over-65" 
plans to supplement Medicare, is told 
in the Gold Book, an interesting and 
informative booklet offered free by 

Readers of The Improvement Era 

can get a free copy of the GOLD 
BOOK simply by filling out and 
mailing the postage-free airmail re- 
ply card bound in next to this page. 
There is no cost or obligation for 
this service. 

Improvement Era 

You've been called 
a responsible 
generation. Born in 
the fullness of times, 
blessed with the 
proverbial bounties 
challenged by causes 
and conditions 
great enough to excite 
r our attention, you 


ave the role of the 

chosen ones. You are 

the royalty of the 

generations of a' 

time. And when much 

is given, much is 

expected. This is not 

a new idea but one that 

you'll come to 

witness as truth as you 

move along your 

path as student leader, 

athlete, artist, 

ebater, home teacher, 

or friend of the 

^^^^ crowd. 

To be part of a 

of church, society, 

school, or friend. And 

it is to choose to do 

something about it. 

Elder Thomas S. Monson 

of the Council of the 

Twelve spoke to 

thousands of youth 

gathered in the 

Tabernacle a short time 

ago and said: " Young 

people, you may choose 

your friends, you 

may choose your 

vocation, you may 

choose to honor and 

obey God, or you may 

responsible generation 
is to be "answering." 
It is to hear the sound, 
the cry, the message 

choose to disobey. It 

has been given unto 

you to choose. Bu 

with this great gift 

^^^^^ comes a great 

responsibility, for with 

a choice comes the 

responsibility of your 

To you of the 


may this issue be a 

help in your 


and in your choices. 
The Editors 

Marion D. Hanks, Editor • Elaine Cannon, Associate Editor 

February 1968 


Lincoln, a 



He Kept On Growing 

By Marion D. Hanks 

Illustrated by Dale Kilbourn 

• A truly great man was born on the 
twelfth day of February, long ago. He lived 
his boyhood days in a frontier cabin, and 
was denied substantially every blessing that 
most boys — even very poor boys — enjoy to- 
day. The preparations he made and the 
contributions that were his and the oppor- 
tunities that came to him were all the result 
of an iron determination — and the will of 

I am one who is prepared to believe that 
Abraham Lincoln was chosen by God and 
made ready by him in his own wise way for 
a great task that had to be done. I don't 
suggest that Abraham Lincoln knew it dur- 
ing those days of deprivation, but certainly 
there wasn't any mortal wise enough to 
suppose that much good could come of a boy 
condemned to such a birth under such cir- 
cumstances, let alone to suppose that God 
was shaping a man to meet a challenge. 

The early days of his manhood and matu- 
rity didn't look much like it, either. He was 
defeated again and again in his efforts to 
win political office and in other important 
objectives he established for himself. But 
he did not quit. He was getting ready. 
Know it or not, he was getting ready. I 


remember the last lines of a great poem 
about Lincoln : 

"Lincoln was a tall pine. 
Lincoln kept on growing." 

That he had intimations that there were 
things he was to do seems evident. Long 
before he matched his steel with the dread- 
ful problem of slavery, he said, "When I hit 
that thing, I'll hit it hard." And he just kept 
on growing. 

Lincoln's heart was with right and with 
the people. An old man who had listened to 
Abe at Gettysburg corrected the usual 
elocutionary presentation of his magnifi- 
cent address there in one important particu- 
lar: "Abe didn't say l of the people, by the 
people, for the people,' like they quote it," 
he said. "Abe said, 'of the people, by the 
people, for the people' " 

The right? It was Lincoln who said : 

"I am not bound to win, but I am bound 
to be true ; I am not bound to succeed, but I 
am bound to live by the light I have." 

Think seriously about this man and what 
he was and did. We, too, are serving the 
right, and our chief concern is people — God's 
choice children. Keep serving and loving 
and growing. o 

Era of Youth 

What Is a Girl 
Good For? 





• Woman's role? What is it? the young 
woman of today asks. 

One hears a lot of talk about what today's 
girl is good for. One sees the word in print. 
But opinions vary greatly. 

Girls are counseled to marry and have 
families — to fulfill the measure of their 
creation. But if they do, they are charged 
with adding to the problem of the popula- 
tion explosion. They are taught the same 
subjects as boys in school and trained to 
compete with them in the world of com- 
merce. On the other hand, they are 
reminded that their place is in the home. 
What is the truth? The dichotomy can be 


One thing of which an LDS girl is certain 
is that her role in the Church and in life will 
always be different from that of a boy. She 
has not been given the priesthood. God's 
power is not used through her exactly as it 
is in men. But a girl does have a power. Hers 
is the power to bear children, yes, but also 
to love, and with heart and hand to com- 
fort, teach, and train, to heal and care for 
both old and young, man, woman, and child 
alike, wherever her service may take her. 

Growing up with an attitude toward 
service, maturing in the sweet spirit of 
waiting upon others, giving of one's self 
as only a woman can, will mark a girl's life 
happily. Her theme song might be: 

"Have I done any good in the world today? 
Have I helped anyone in need? 
Have I cheered up the sad, 
And made someone feel glad? 
If not, I have failed indeed. 

"Has anyone's burden been lighter today, 
Because I was willing to share? 

February 1968 

Have the sick and the weary 

Been helped on their way? 

When they needed my help was I there?" 

Among the many wonderful ways a young 
girl can grow into her role of woman is to 
do volunteer work as a candy striper in a 
hospital. Two such teens are Latter-day 
Saints Marti Sonntag and Kathy Thorpe, 
caught in action by photographer Eldon 

February 1968 

to A\«in 



By Paulette 

«» ~:' f 



/ remember mud squishing between my toes, 
and the incredible softness of newborn puppies. 
I heard brook music when we went fishing, and 
ran to the melody of mother's call. I tasted honey 
on my fingers, and smelled apple blossoms in our 
tree. I cried when I was afraid or hurt, and I 
laughed when I was happy to be alive. Telling 
stories at the bedside of my brothers made me feel 
grown up. But in my heart I knew I wasn't. 

Somewhere as a child I learned to love. Love 
is the key to being properly responsive to life, to 
our fellowmen. Love begins when I ask my grown- 
up friend, "How are you?" and he answers me 
honestly. When he is happy, we run and laugh 
together. When he is depressed, I listen as he 
pours out his heart. I share his tears, as he would 
mine. I go to my friend, for there is love. 

Love is giving what I need to get. Love is re- 
sponsiveness to man. 

Love begins when I realize that we are all 
children of God and respond to this sublime idea. 
I step into my parents' shoes and weaken when I 
see the challenges of rearing a family and creating 
a home where love is king. Then I understand 
how heartbreaking life would be without love, 
or love without eternal life. I must be a responsive 
child and listen to their wise counsel, for they are 
wise in the ways of love, and they are responsive 
to the counsel of Heavenly Father. 

Erich Fromm said, "Duty is an obligation, but 
responsibility is a response to something." I like 
to think responsibility is a response to love. 

If I am to be a responsible member of this 
generation, I must, then, be responsive to all 
mankind. To truly do this, I must educate both 
my mind and heart, for what is knowledge with- 
out love? It is an empty barrel of facts without 
meaning. Without love, Toynbee said, "Man is a 
god of technology but an ape at life." 

We are aiming to become good at life. Christ's 

Church is based on love. "We believe in being 

treasured, high-principled honest, true, chaste, benevolent, virtuous, and in 

doing good to all men." The Church of Jesus 
Christ of Latter-day Saints was established to 
help us prepare ourselves to truly love our broth- 
ers, to love God, and to serve him. Only thus can 
we earn our way back into his eternal presence. 

• / looked around me at my world — my world 
of unrelated textbooks and lectures, my world of 
philosophical discussions, my world of prayer 
with the council of the Latter-day Saint Student 
Association, my world of refusing European 
moral standards while studying abroad, my world 
of the promise of eternal progression, my world 
of blindly insensitive people, and especially my 
world of dear and 

With all of these diverse influences, what sense 
have I made of the world? What is my relation- 
ship to the scheme of things? What is my 
responsibility ? 


Era of Youth 

Responsiveness to God By steve iba 

continues on page 42 

• That grand old prophet Elijah was blessed with 
power from heaven to curse the earth with famine 
and to call fire down to consume the offering 
before the prophets of Baal. Then Elijah left 
the land and lay down under a juniper tree and 
slept. An angel of the Lord came to him and 
said: "Arise and eat; because the journey is too 
great for thee." 

During the journey Elijah hid himself in a cave. 
The voice of the Lord said unto him : "What doest 
thou here, Elijah? ... Go forth, and stand upon 
the mount before the Lord. And, behold, the 
Lord passed by, and a great and strong wind rent 
the mountains, and brake in pieces the rocks 
before the Lord; but the Lord was not in the 
wind: and after the wind an earthquake; but 
the Lord was not in the earthquake: And after the 
earthquake a fire; but the Lord was not in 
the fire; and after the fire a still small voice," 
(1 Kings 19:7, 9-12.) 

And so it was with Elijah. He was a man like 
unto ourselves. At times we all slumber under 
our juniper trees. "We walk in darkness at 
noonday," and are very insensitive toward life, 
toward all that moves and lives around us. 

But what do we hear from the Lord ? "Awake 
and arouse your faculties." Have you observed 
how a child is awake and responsive to his father 
and mother? We are the offspring of God, our 
Father, and "cometh from afar." 

"Heaven lies about us in our infancy! 

Shades of the prison-house begin to close 

Upon the growing Boy, 

But he beholds the light, and whence it flows, 

He sees it in his joy; 

The Youth, who daily farther from the east 

Must travel, still is Nature's Priest, 

And by the vision splendid 

Is on his way attended ; 

At length the Man perceives it die away, 

And fade into the light of common day." 

(William Wordsworth, 

"Intimations of Immortality.") 

February 1968 

Must that responsiveness toward God fade into 
the light of common day ? The light from Father 
fades because we hide in caves. We build up walls 
around ourselves. Can we be responsive to God if 
we're false, artificial, ungenuine with men? "Man 
is spirit. . . ." That's our real selves. Only 
through a spirit-to-spirit communication and re- 
lationship can we be known and come to know 
one another. Too many times we allow only the 
scabbard to be seen, and never unsheath the knife. 

"What doest thou here?" Can you hear that 
voice when you're sleeping under your juniper tree 
or hiding in your cave? "Go forth and stand upon 
the mount." Hear the voice of the Lord speak 
to you, spirit to spirit, Father to son. Remember, 
he's not in the wind, earthquake, or fire, but in the 
still small voice within you. 

"Sometimes during solitude I hear truth spoken 
with clarity and freshness; uncolored and un- 
translated it speaks from within myself in a lan- 
guage original but inarticulate, heard only with 
the soul, and I realize I brought it with me, was 
never taught it, nor can I efficiently teach it to 
another." (President Hugh B. Brown.) 

It's a personal response to know what the Father 
wants us to do. As we respond, he responds, and 
then we become responsible to what we hear and 
feel. The words of Johann Schiller, which 
Beethoven put to music in his Ninth Symphony, 
are meaningful: 

"Millions, myriads, rise and gather! 
Share this universal kiss! 
Brothers, in a heaven of bliss ; 
Smiles the world's all loving Father. 
Do the millions, his creation, know him 
And His works of love? 
Seek Him ! In the heights above, 
In His starry habitation." 

Do we seek him and know him, the world's all- 
loving Father? I wonder. O 



1 1 1 1 




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New Light on 
Joseph Smith's 




Because of the unprecedented inter- 
est generated throughout the Church 
by the recovery of 1 1 pieces of papyrus 
that were once the property of the 
Prophet Joseph Smith, The Improve- 
ment Era is reproducing here in color 
all of the known papyri now in the 
possession of the Church. There are 
12 pieces in all; 11 of these are included 
in the recent find (see January Era) 
and one has been in the Church His- 
torian's Office over the years. The 12 
pieces of papyrus have now been num- 
bered and labeled by Dr. Hugh Nibley, 
who has been assigned by the Church 
to direct the investigation and research 
being done on the material. (See the 
second in his series of articles, "A New 
Look at the Pearl of Great Price," 
page 14.) 

Fragment 1 is the section of the 
papyrus manuscript from which the 
Prophet Joseph Smith obtained Fac- 
simile No. 1, which is reproduced in 
the Book of Abraham. 

Fragments 2, 3A and 3B are un- 
classified, illustrated fragments. 

Fragments 4-9 — these include the 
one from the Church Historian's Of- 
fice — are from the Book of the Dead. 

/. Facsimile No. 1 

Such books, which were written to 
assist in the safe passage of the dead 
persons into the spirit world, were 
commonly buried with Egyptian mum- 
mies. The writings on the recently 
recovered fragments show that all of 
these Book of the Dead papyri belonged 
to the lady Taimin Mutninesikhonsu. 
Thus, we probably now know the name 
of the female mummy that was in 
Joseph Smith's possession and on whose 
person it was reported the papyrus was 
originally found. 

Fragments 10 and 11 are unclassi- 
fied, unillustrated hieratic texts. (Hier- 
atic text is a cursive, shorthand version 
of hieroglyphics.) 

Fragment 4 is called the "Framed 
Trinity Papyrus" because this particu- 
lar fragment had an old frame on it 
when it was found in the Metropoli- 
tan Museum of Art in New York. It is 
thought that the fragment may have 
been framed and displayed during the 
Prophet Joseph Smith's time. It is 
labeled "Trinity" because such figures 
as those shown in the upper left- 
hand illustration are interpreted by 
Egyptologists as representing the 
Trinity. D.L.G. 


tm9 mm 

■t a. 

Background of the Church Historian's Fragment 

By Jay M. Todd 

Editorial Associate 

• As to the background of the Church 
Historian's fragment, this is most 
puzzling. Two members of the his- 
torian's office, A. William Lund and 
Earl E. Olson, assistant Church his- 
torians, do not recall any information 
surrounding the fragment — only that 
it has been there throughout their 
service. Brother Lund has been assistant 
Church historian since 1911, and has 
worked since September 1908 in the 
historian's office. They believe that 
the fragment has been a part of the 
manuscript of the Egyptian Alphabet 
and Grammar prepared by Joseph 
Smith preparatory to the translation of 
the Book of Abraham and that it ap- 
parently has always been in the 
Church's hands. A perusal of the files 
of the Church Historian's Office dis- 
closes these two items: 

(1) Wednesday, October 17, 1855. 
". . . The following books and papers 
were taken from this office today and 
deposited in the fire proof vault of the 
new Historian's Office, namely on the 
2nd shelf from the bottom: History 
Books, A., B.l, B.2 . . Egyptian Alpha- 
bet; . . . three plates of the Book of 
Abraham; red box with papers, blanks, 
journal, sterotype [sic] plates." Thus, 
if the Church Historian's fragment has 
always been with the Egyptian Alpha- 

//. Plowing scene 

bet and Grammar, perhaps this entry 
helps to date and place the papyrus 
fragment in its long journey from 
Nauvoo to Utah. 

(2) However, the most interesting — 
and most puzzling — entry is found 
under date of Saturday, July 11, 1846. 
(As early as 1938, Dr. Sidney B. Sperry 
of Brigham Young University, the 
"father" of much of our modern Pearl 
of Great Price research, mentioned in 
part this intriguing entry in Ancient 
Records Testify in Papyrus and Stone, 
an MIA course of study.) "At seven 
a.m. President Brigham Young and the 
brethren with him went into council in 
Powsheeks' tent, which was on the east 
side of the creek. 

"Powsheek asked, where they would 
winter and where they would cross the 
Missouri. It was reported that some- 
body had stolen from the 'Mormons.' 
Powsheek said if he found anything, 
he would return it. . . . 

"Powsheek spoke of Joseph Smith, 
the prophet, who had been murdered 
and with whom he had been ac- 
quainted; said, the prophet was a great 
and good man. 

"As the Presidency passed out of the 
tent, Banquejappa, a Pottawatomie 
[sic] Chief, called us aside, and pre- 
sented a paper counseling the Indians 
not to sell their lands, given them by 
Jon. Dunham, and two sheets of 
hieroglyphics, from the Book of Abra- 
ham. President B. Young started at 

ten minutes after eight, rode till 
twenty-two minutes after ten, when 
they stopped at the west branch of 
the Nodaway, with Ezra Chase; they 
resumed their journev at half past 
eleven and arrived at Pottawatomie 
Indian village forty five minutes after 
one p.m. 

"A Pottawatomie captain presented 
two sheets of the Book of Abraham; 
also a letter from their 'Father' Joseph 
Smith, dated 1843, and a map of their 
land by W. W. Phelps " 

The location of these meetings was 
in western Iowa, where the Saints were 
establishing themselves at Council 
Bluffs, Mount Pisgah, and other camps 
in preparation for the winter of 1846, 
previous to the general exodus to the 
Rocky Mountains a year later. The 
West Nodaway River generally ranges 
45-55 miles east and southeast of 
present-day Omaha, Nebraska. From 
Church history, it appears that Brig- 
ham Young was moving westward to- 
ward Council Bluffs at the time. 

This startling entry presents many 
questions: 1) Were two different 
presentations being made of the Book 
of Abraham material, or is the second 
reference supposed to be an amplifica- 
tion of the first reference? 

2) Are there two presentations, one 
involving actual papyrus fragments, 
the other involving a presentation of 
printed sheets from the Book of Abra- 
ham printed in the Times and Seasons, 



I v 



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February 1968 

2J ■ 3 i . ^P 6 7 











i -■ Y 

~*-MA. Court of 
Osiris (on throne) 

which the second In- 
dian captain had ac- 
quired somehow and 
presented as a ges- 
ture of friendship to 
Brigham Young? 

3) Do both presen- 
tations involve news- 
paper clippings? 

4) Since Baque- 
jappa was acquainted 
with the Prophet, 
did the Prophet, in a 
gesture of affection 
to the Indian chief, 
give him some pieces 
of papyrus that from 
his study the Prophet 
knew were not im- 
portant to the Book 
of Abraham? (As 
noted above, Dr. 
Hugh Nibley asserts 
that the Church His- 
torian's fragment is 
from the Book of the 

5) If these were 
actual papyri frag- 
ments being returned, 
were they part of 
that which was "re- 
ported that somebody 
had stolen from the 
'Mormons' "? 

6) Did some In- 
dians, while visiting 
with Joseph Smith, 
steal some papers 
and papyrus from 
him, his office, or 
Church buildings? 
Why did the Baque- 
jappa call the men 
"aside" — a feeling of 

Since the Indians 
had a letter from the 
Prophet, and appar- 
ently were acquaint- 
ed with him, the 
setting is such that it 
is certainly possible 
that the Indians 
could have acquired 
through some means 
some actual papyrus 

7) But perhaps the 
biggest unanswered 
question is: If the 
presentation actually 
did involve two 
papyrus fragments, is 
the newly named 
Church Historian's 

ragment one of 
those fragments? 
And if so, where is 

/// B. Court of Osiris 
(Thoth recording) 


Improvement Era 







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Improvement Era 


IV. Framed ("Trinity") papyrus 

the other fragment? Numerous 
questions come to mind. 

But the story is not yet fin- 
ished. To add strength to the 
possibility that the Pota- 
watami Indians actually 
could have obtained some 
manuscripts, perhaps even as 
a gift from the Prophet Joseph 
Smith, the following entries 
from the Documentary His- 
tory of the Church are pre- 
sented: 1) Under date of 
Saturday, June 24, 1843: "Sev- 
eral of the Pottawatomie [sic] 
Indians called to see the 
Nauvoo House and Temple. 
They wanted to talk, hut their 
interpreter could not speak 
much." According to Dr. T. 
Edgar Lyon, well-known 
Church historian associated 
with Nauvoo Restoration, 
Inc., Nauvoo was a prominent 
spot for Indians and was 
called by them Quashquema. 
Indian burial grounds 

abounded in the area. The 
Potawatami Indians were 
there, being ever pressed 
westward by settlers since 
their expulsion from the area 
around Lake Michigan in 
1833. A famous American 
Indian war, the Black Hawk 
War, was also waged in this 
vicinity. At any event, when 
these Indians arrived, the 
Prophet Joseph was not in 
town. He had been forcefully 
taken the day before by two 
sheriffs from Missouri, who 
transported him under false 
arrest to Dixon, Lee County, 
Illinois, some 140 miles north- 
east of Nauvoo. He was re- 
leased several days later under 
a writ of habeas corpus. 

2) Under date of Sunday, 
July 2, 1843: "I had an inter- 
view with several Pottawat- 
tamie [sic] chiefs, who came 
to see me during my ab- 
sence." Following this state- 
ment, the Prophet had 
included "Interview with Pot- 
tawattamie Chiefs. (From 
Wilford Woodruff's Jour- 
nal.)," which contains the 
following: "The Indian chiefs 
remained at Nauvoo until the 
Prophet returned and had his 
trial. During their stay they 
had a talk with Hyrum Smith 
in the basement of the Nau- 
voo House. . . . They were not 
free to talk, and did not wish 
to communicate their feelings 
until they could see the great 
Prophet. At length, on the 2nd 

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February 1968 


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VI. The swallow 









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<*- —A 

V77. Man with sta/f 
(entering into glory) 

day of July, 1843, President 
Joseph Smith and several of 
the Twelve met those chiefs 
in the court-room, with about 
twenty of the elders. The fol- 
lowing is a synopsis of the 
conversation which took place 
as given by the interpreter: 
The Indian orator arose and 
asked the Prophet if the men 
who were present were all his 
friends. Answer — yes. 

"He then said — 'We as a 
people have long been dis- 
tressed and oppressed. We 
have been driven from our 
lands many times. . . . We 
have talked with the Great 
Spirit, and the Great Spirit 
has talked with us. We have 
asked the Great Spirit to save 
us and let us live; and the 
Great Spirit has told us that 
he had raised up a great 
Prophet, chief and friend, who 
would do us great good and 
tell us what to do; and the 
Great Spirit has told us that 
you are the man (pointing to 
the Prophet Joseph). We have 
now come a great way to see 
you, and hear your words, 
and to have you to tell us 
what to do. Our horses have 
become poor traveling, and 
we are hungry. We will now 
wait and hear your word.' 
The Spirit of God rested upon 
the Lamanites, especially the 
orator. Joseph was much 
affected and shed tears. He 
arose and said unto them: 'I 
have heard your words. They are true. The 
Great Spirit has told you the truth. I am 
your friend and brother, and I wish to do 
you good. . . . 

The Great Spirit has given me a book, 
and told me that you will soon be blessed 
again. The Great Spirit will soon begin to 
talk with you and your children. This is the 
book which your fathers made. I wrote upon 
it | showing them the Book of Mormon |. 
This tells you what you will have to do. i 
now want you to begin to pray to the Great 
Spirit. I want you to make peace with one 
another, and do not kill any more Indians; 
it is not good. Do not kill white men; it is 
not good; but ask the Great Spirit for what 
you want, and it will not be long before the 
Great Spirit will bless you, and you will 
cultivate the earth and build good houses 
like white men. We will give you something 
to eat and to take home with you.' 

"When the prophet's words were inter- 
preted to the chiefs, they all said it was 
good. . . . 

"At the close of the interview, Joseph had 
an ox killed for them, and — ► 

they were furnished with VIII. 

some more horses. . . ." (Ital- Inverted 

ics added.) triangle 


Improvement Era 

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ft" i su S . _j v . 

! I 

2 »/ *f^df < 

In addition to this brief 
information, which certainly 
portrays a picture of emo- 
tion and deep respect between 
the Potawatami Indians and 
the Prophet Joseph Smith, the 
date of the event is most im- 
portant. It is July 1843, more 
than a year after the Book of 
Abraham had first been print- 
ed in Times and Seasons in 
1842. By now the Prophet 
knew which pieces of papyrus 
were important, in terms of 
religious scripture, and which 
were not. 

During the Indians' stay, 
and in a gesture of lasting 
friendship, the Prophet may 
have given them either pages 
from Times and Seasons, 
which featured Book of Abra- 
ham facsimiles, or perhaps 
some actual papyrus frag- 
ments, or both. Thus, in addi- 
tion to food and horses, the 
Prophet may have wished to 
give the Indians a personal 
token, something of value or 
of antiquity to demonstrate 
his affection and bond with 
them. At any event, it seems 
apparent that whatever it was 
that the Indians gave to Brig- 
ham Young in 1846 was that 
which they had obtained 
during their 1843 Nauvoo 
visit with the Prophet Joseph 
Smith. It is certainly a most 
intriguing puzzle. — ► 




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February 1968 


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With our readers, the staff anticipation to additional de- 
of The Improvement Era will velopments in this fascinating 
be looking forward with eager story, and to the unfolding of 

the meaning of the hiero- 

IX. Church Historian's fragment 



glyphics and illustrations on 
these valuable manuscripts as 
they are given by Dr. Nibley 
in his articles. O 

VjL ,(£*%* 






m prove me nt Era 





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X. Hieratic text, the "Sensen" papyrus, labeled "first one"' (unillustratcd) 

XI. Small "Sensen" text (unillustrated) 





continued from page 39 


• • 

• In our exacting lives, we are either growing 
spiritually or we are losing ground. We either 
feed the spirit or it withers and dies. There is no 
neutral course. If we have not grown spiritually' 
during the Sabbath day, of what value has it been 
to us? We may have obtained much-needed 
physical relaxation, but we would be foolish in- 
deed to overlook the fact that the finest care of 
the physical self is no substitute for the neglect 
of the soul. 

Theodore Roosevelt was once asked by a soldier 
if he could not worship God while in the moun- 
tains as well as in church on Sunday. Roosevelt 
promptly replied, "You could, but you don't." It 
is true that Moses found God on a mountain, and 
Joseph Smith found him in a grove of trees, but, 
as has been pointed out, neither of them had a 
golf club or was carrying a fishing pole in his hand 
at the time. 

William E. Berrett writes, "It takes proper 
environment to induce deep thinking and deep 
feeling. It requires the harmony of soul that is 
accomplished in prayer or song. It needs the 
assuring presence of others reaching for the same 
things in order to quicken the spirit within us. It 
requires the spirit of God to reach out and kindle 
the flame of our own spirit. Jesus said, 'Where 
two or three are gathered together in my name, 
there I will be in the midst of them.' " 

You may remember the story of the two min- 
isters who were mulling over some of the time- 
worn excuses for not attending church. They de- 
cided to apply these excuses for not attending 
church to something people like to do, such as 
going to the movies. They came up with this 


1. I don't attend the movies because the man- 
ager of the theater has never visited me. 

2. I did go a few times, but no one spoke to me. 
Those who go there aren't very friendly. 

3. Every time I go they ask me for money. 

4. Not all folks who go to the movies live up 
to the high standards of the film. 

5. I went to the movies so much as a child I've 
decided I have had all the entertainment I need. 

6. The performance lasts too long; I can't sit 
still for an hour and a half. 



By Steve 

at Yale 

University ; 
from Capitol 

Hill Ward, 

Salt Lake 

7. I don't always agree with what I hear and 
see there. 

8. I don't think they have very good music. 

9. The shows are held in the evening, and that's 
the only time I have to be home with family. 
We can see how ridiculous these excuses seem 

when they are used in this manner. In June 1959 
Presidents David 0. McKay, J. Reuben Clark, Jr., 
and Henry D. Moyle of the First Presidency issued 
the following in a statement concerning the 
Sabbath : 

"The Sabbath is not just another day on which 
we merely rest from work, free to spend it as our 
light-mindedness may suggest. It is a holy day, 
the Lord's day, to be spent as a day of worship 
and reverence. All matters extraneous thereto 
should be shunned. 

"This is a Holy Day of the Lord, on which we 
are commanded to pour out our souls in gratitude 
for the many blessings of health, strength, physi- 
cal comfort, and spiritual joy which come from 
the Lord's bounteous hand." 

President McKay has further commented on 
our conduct when we do come to Church on Sun- 
day. He states: "When you enter a church build- 
ing, you are coming into the presence of our 
Father in heaven; and that thought should be 
sufficient incentive for you to prepare your hearts, 
your minds, and even your attire, that you might 
appropriately and properly sit in his pres- 
ence. . . ." 

In conclusion, William E. Berrett suggests five 
questions to ask ourselves each Sabbath day : 

1. Have I this day learned one new spiritual 

2. Have I come one whit closer to understand- 
ing and loving my f ellowman ? 

3. Have I resolved anew to become in my words 
and actions more like Jesus Christ? 

4. Have I renewed my solemn covenants with 

5. Have I kept my mind unhampered by 
thoughts of violence, financial schemes, petty 
jealousies, or sordid desires? 

If we can answer "yes" to all of these, we may 
be sure that we have indeed kept the Sabbath 
day holy. q 

Era of Youth 

Youth speaks 

to someone important — 

Elder Marion G. Romney of the 

Council of the Twelve — about the 

Sustaining Power 

of the 

Holy Ghos 

Q. Elder Romney, in seminary we are 
considering the question of the sustaining 
power of the Holy Ghost. What happens 
when we receive the witness of the Holy 

One who receives the witness of the Holy 
Ghost has a sure knowledge that God lives; 
that he is our Father in heaven; that Jesus 
Christ is our Elder Brother in the spirit 
and the Only Begotten of the Father in the 
flesh, our Savior and Redeemer. Such a one 
knows that the universal order in the heav- 
ens above, in the earth beneath, and in the 
waters under the earth, all give evidence 
that God lives; he knows that the testimonies 
of the prophets concerning the Father, Son, 
and Holy Ghost are accurate and true. 
Secure in this knowledge, his life has 
purpose. The gospel of Jesus Christ becomes 
for him what Paul said it is: "The power of 
God unto salvation." (Rom. 1:16.) 

February 1968 

■ *»» *M 

mV ^Jntf 

Enthusiasm and the ability to make 
new- and additional opportunities are 
qualities that prompted the MIA general 
board to create 30 more honor badges 
after Esther Oeknick had completed the 
required Beehive honor badges. Esther 
is chorister of the MIA in the German 
Speaking Ward in Salt Lake City. 

A jazz-singing Mormon girl is win- 
ning a name for herself in the collegiate 
jazz festivals of America. She is Brig- 
ham Young University undergraduate 
Cheryln Olson. She took second place 
in one international collegiate event in 
Florida and looks forward to bigger 
stakes this year. She has made a major 
recording release and has appeared on 
several TV shows. 

with the 

We talked with members of the 
Centerville (Utah) Fourth Ward of Davis 
Stake, and they were charmed indeed 
by the two-day charm school for all 
MIA girls and their mothers. A per- 
sonal invitation in the form of a dress 
pattern brought enthusiastic crowds to 
hear about hair styling, manners, 
grooming, and social graces, and to 
see a fashion show culminating in a 
wedding party. The bride was Linda 
Duncan, who paused on the runway in 
her own wedding gown and spoke of 
the beauty of a temple marriage. Other 
speakers included Noma Kjar, Barbara 
Sylvester, Margaret Farmer, Loretta 
Tolman, lla Devereaux, Frankie Free- 
man, and Joan Roybal. 

Era of Youth 

Denver is a stop-off point for many nomination for President of the United 

travelers, and when George Romney, a 
Latter-day Saint who is seeking the 


States, and Sister Romney made such a 
stop, there were some excited youth on 
hand to greet them. Most excited was 
Randy Dunbar, who enjoyed a special 
birthday treat in being guest at break- 
fast with the celebrities. 

Next time you thumb through your 
Seventeen magazine or watch a young 
adult cosmetic commercial on TV, keep 
your eyes open for an active LDS girl 
named Laurie Gunter from Queens 
(New York) Ward, Long Island Stake, 
who is a professional model. Laurie 
is an honor roll student and yell leader 
at high school and the girls' athletic 
director for her ward. 

February 1968 


Era of Youth 

Scene with 

"Talent undeveloped is talent lost," 
someone said, but there won't be much 
of that happening in Wards like Salt 
Lake City's Highland View 2nd! Put to- 
gether interested leaders like Bishop 
Jean McDonough and counselors, tal- 
ented directors and designers like Pat 
Davis, Donna Warner, and Cliff Davis, 
a musical like Annie Get Your Gun, and 
willing to rehearse at 6 A.M. daily for 
three months, and you have a really 
great experience that blessed partici- 
pants, viewers, and the missionary 

the Editors 

Milling around the BYU campus, one 
meets friends from all over the world 
where Church service has called. Saw 
new professor Joseph Wood (former 
bishop, now an MIA general board 
member) greeting newcomers Paul 
Larsen and Jean Ahlstrom from Idaho 
and Chris Lo Presti from California. 

February 1968 


U/U 4& (pvd^MA^no more timely topic than FREEDOM — 
what iris and how to get it. The scriptures have something 
to say about the subject. You'll profit from reading and 
applying them. 

"Then said Jesus to those 
Jews which believed on him, If 
ye continue in my word, then 
are ye my disciples indeed; 

"And ye shall know the truth, 
and the truth shall make you 
free." (John 8:30-32.) 

"They answered him, We be 
Abraham's seed, and were never 
in bondage to any man: how 
sayest thou, Ye shall be made 

"Jesus answered them, Verily, 
verily, I say unto you, Whoso- 
ever committeth sin is the ser- 
vant of sin. 

"And the servant abideth not 
in the house for ever: but the 
Son abideth ever. 

"If the Son therefore shall 
make you free, ye shall be free 

(John 8:30-36.) 

"I, the Lord God, make you 
free, therefore ye are free in- 
deed; and the law also maketh 
you free." 

(D&C 98:8.) 

"And the Messiah cometh in 
the fulness of time, that he may 
redeem the children of men 
from the fall. And because that 
they are redeemed from the fall 
they have become free forever, 
knowing good and evil ; to act for 
themselves and not to be acted 
upon, save it be by the punish- 
ment of the law at the great and 
last day, according to the com- 
mandments which God hath 

"Wherefore, men are free ac- 
cording to the flesh; and all 
things are given them which are 
expedient unto man. And they 
are free to choose liberty and 
eternal life, through the great 
mediation of all men, or to 
choose captivity and death, ac- 
cording to the captivity and 
power of the devil ; for he seek- 
eth that all men might be 
miserable like unto himself. 

"And now, my sons, I would 
that ye should look to the great 
Mediator, and hearken unto his 
great commandments ; and be 

faithful unto his words, and 
choose eternal life, according to 
the will of his Holy Spirit ; 

"And not choose eternal death, 
according to the will of the flesh 
and the evil which is therein, 
which giveth the spirit of the 
devil power to captivate, to bring 
you down to hell, that he may 
reign over you in his own king- 

(2 Ne. 2:26-29.) 

"But whoso looketh into the 
perfect law of liberty, and con- 
tinueth therein, he being not a 
forgetful hearer, but a doer of 
the work, this man shall be 
blessed in his deed." 

(Jas. 1:25.) 

". . . where the Spirit of the 
Lord is, there is liberty." 

(2 Cor. 3:17.) 

"Abide ye in the liberty 
wherewith ye are made free; 
entangle not yourselves in sin, 
but let your hands be clean, un- 
til the Lord comes." 

(D&C 88:86.) 

"And I will walk at liberty: 
for I seek thy precepts." 

(Ps. 119:45.) 


Era of Youth 

The Presiding Bishop 
Talks to Youth About 


• During the Savior's earthly min- 
istry, as he associated with the lep- 
ers, the maimed, the wise, or as 
he knelt in solemn prayer before 
his Father, one senses that he pos- 
sessed a profound respect for 
others. Even during the trial, 
when those he loved betrayed him, 
and those he came to serve 
mocked and cursed him, not once 
did he speak with disrespect. Even 
when the mobs cried; ''Crucify 
him! Crucify him!" and he was 
taken to Golgotha to suffer the 
most excruciating pains, his 
thoughts, were for the welfare of 
his mother, for those he loved, 
and even for those who drove nails 
into his hands, and a disdainful 
word never parted his lips. 

Young men and women, it is 
this great characteristic of respect 
that I would like to consider with 
you. This is a virtue that is often 
difficult for young people to fully 
appreciate; yet it is a characteristic 
of maturity, dignity, and greatness. 
While respect is a virtue that has 
application in each phase of our 
lives, may I discuss with you its 
application in some areas that seem 
of particular importance in our 

Respect for Parents 

From the time of Adam, to 
Sinai, to our day, the responsi- 
bility of youth to respect their 
parents has been with us. Great 
men have always respected their 
parents. As Christ, our Master, 
the greatest of all, hung bleeding 
on the cross, he thought of his 
mother's welfare. Abraham Lin- 
coln, one of the greatest of Amer- 
icans, said on one occasion, "All 
that I am or ever hope to be I 
owe to my angel mother." Respect 

for parents is basic to true man- 
hood or true womanhood. 

An account is given of an 
English boy who was once sent to 
watch his father's field. On no ac- 
count was he to let anyone go 
through it. The boy had scarcely 
taken his post when some hunts- 
men came up and ordered him to 
open the gate. He declined to do 
so, telling them that he meant to 
obey his father's instructions. At 
last one of them came up and 
said in a commanding voice, "My 
boy, you do not know me, but I 
am the Duke of Wellington. I am 
not accustomed to being diso- 
beyed. I command you to open 
this gate." 

The boy lifted his cap and an- 
swered firmly, "I am sure that the 
Duke of Wellington would not 
wish me to obey his order. I 
must keep the gate shut. No one 
can pass through but by my fa- 
ther's express permission." 

Then the Duke took off his own 
hat and said, "I honor the man or 
boy who can neither be frightened 
nor bribed into disobeying orders. 
With an army of such soldiers I 
could conquer not only the 
French but the world." 

Obedience to parents is the 
most sublime form of respect. It 
is often the so-called little things 
that convey respect. It is well, 
young men and women, that you 
realize how much of what you are 
and what you have, you owe to 
your parents. There are no people 
in your life more deserving of your 

We often hear some young peo- 
ple comment that they wish that 
they were given more respect, 
and this plea is not without cause. 
Yet a basic rule of human rela- 
tions is that "respect begets re- 
spect." You will find that you will 
gain respect from your parents 
and others as you honor and re- 
spect them. 

Recently an incident was told 
by a man whose form is now bent 

By Bishop John H. Vandenberg 

and whose hair is white with years. 
When he was in his youth, he was 
returning one evening from the 
hay fields on his father's farm. 
He had been working since day- 
break, when his father met him 
with a request that he go to town 
to do an errand. The elderly man 

"I was tired, dirty, and hungry. 
It was two miles to town. I wanted 
to get my supper. My first impulse 
was to refuse, and to do it harshly, 
for I was angry that my father 
should ask me to go after my long 
day's work. But I knew that if I did 
refuse, he would go himself. 'Of 
course, Father, I'll go,' I said heart- 
ily, giving my scythe to one of the 
men. 'Thank you, Jim,' my father 
replied. 'I was going myself, but 
somehow I don't feel very strong 

"He walked with me to the 
road that turned off to the town, 
and as he left me he put his hand 
on my arm and said again, 'Thank 
you, my son; you've always been 
a good boy to me, Jim. 

"I hurried into town and back 
again. When I came near the 
house, I saw that something un- 
usual had happened. All the farm- 
hands were gathered about the 
door instead of doing the chores. 
When I came nearer, one of the 
men turned to me with tears roll- 
ing down his face. 'Your father,' 
he said, 'is dead. He fell just as he 
reached the house. His last words 
he spoke of you.' 

"I am an old man now, but I 
thanked God over and over again 
in all the years that have passed 
since that hour for those last 
words of my father-'You've always 
been a good boy to me.' " 

Having respect for your parents 
is the first step toward nobility. 

Respect for Others 

Respect is an attitude that often 
finds expression in what is called 
"common courtesy." It is a tragedy 
of our time to find that "common 

February 1968 


courtesy" isn't as common as 
might be so. This form of respect 
and consideration is so essential 
and so basic. "All doors are open 
to courtesy," said Thomas Fuller. 
And as Tennyson observed: "The 
greater man the greater courtesy." 

Courtesy is a form of respect that 
is a necessary part of a true man 
or a true woman. It reflects self- 
confidence and self-esteem. Speak- 
ing in this regard, E. S. Martin said, 
"Self-respect is at the bottom of 
all good manners. They are the 
expression of discipline, of good- 
will, of respect for other people's 
rights, and comfort and feelings." 

It is well, young people, that we 
examine ourselves and see that in 
all our actions we are courteous 
and considerate— with that respect 
which comes from within. 

"Nothing," said Cicero, "is more 
becoming a great man than cour- 

Respect for Law 

Respect for law and civil author- 
ity is a basic tenet of our beliefs. 
The Prophet Joseph Smith stated 
that "we believe in being subject 
to kings, presidents, rulers, and 
magistrates, in obeying, honoring, 
and sustaining the law." This is 
an area that is being mocked and 
ridiculed by some in our society 
today. In the United States a mur- 
der occurs every 48 minutes, a 
forcible rape every 21 minutes, a 
robbery every 3 1 /2 minutes, an auto 
theft every 57 seconds, a grand 
larceny every 35 seconds, and a 
burglary every 23 seconds. 

A rather startling and tragic note 
is that 48 percent of the arrests 
for serious crimes in the United 
States are of youths under 18 
years of age. 

President McKay, in comment- 
ing on this disrespect for law and 
authority, quoted one of our U. S. 
senators. He said, "America has 
been afflicted over the past three 
or four years by an epidemic of 

acts of so-called civil disobedi- 
ence. Municipal ordinances and 
state statutes have been wilfully 
and intentionally disobeyed by 
individuals and groups. Private 
property has been subject to de- 
liberate trespass. Mobs have taken 
to the streets, interfering with 
commerce, creating public disor- 
der, and breaching the peace. 
Civil disobedience has at times 
been advocated from some of the 
pulpits throughout the land and 
encouraged, upon occasions, by 
ill-advised statements of public 
officials. Mobs have frequently 
been so large that the police were 
helpless to make arrests. These 
acts of so-called disobedience 
have been proclaimed by impor- 
tant political personages to be in 
the finest American tradition. It 
was said to be good Christian doc- 
trine to disregard man-made laws 
which conflicted with one's own 
conscience, and, of course, by 
implication, those who enforced 
man-made laws were likewise to 
be disregarded. This is indeed a 
strange and false doctrine. . . ." 
It is in direct opposition to the dec- 
laration of the Prophet Joseph 
Smith, who stated that "to the 
laws all men owe respect and 
deference. . . ." (D&C 134:6.) 

This sets forth a challenge to 
you young men and women of 
the Church to hold forth a light of 
respect in the midst of this dis- 
dain for the laws and statutes 
that have made this land great. 

Respect for Divine 

The Apostle Paul had to be 
taught respect for authority before 
he was called to the ministry. The 
Book of Acts tells of Saul's venge- 
ful trip toward Damascus, which 
was interrupted when the voice of 
the Lord cried out to Saul: "Saul, 
Saul, why persecutest thou me?" 
And Saul said, "Lord, what wilt 
thou have me to do? And the 

Lord said unto him, Arise, and go 
into the city, and it shall be told 
thee what thou must do." (Acts 
9:4, 6.) 

Now, the Lord could have told 
Saul in a few words what he was 
to do, but the Lord understood 
Saul's nature, and he knew that 
Saul would find difficulty in rec- 
ognizing and respecting the au- 
thority of the Church leaders, as 
later instances proved. So in an 
effort to impress upon Saul the 
vital importance of respecting the 
authority of the Church, the Lord 
sent the learned Saul to Ananias, 
the humble presiding officer of the 
Church in Damascus, the very 
man whom Saul was going to ar- 
rest, for instructions regarding the 
gospel of Jesus Christ. 

Respect for authority is basic in 
our doctrine. The Lord, in the 
Doctrine and Covenants, empha- 
sized this point when he declared: 
"What I the Lord have spoken, 
I have spoken, and I excuse not 
myself; and though the heavens 
and the earth pass away, my word 
shall not pass away, but shall all 
be fulfilled, whether my mine own 
voice or by the voice of my serv- 
ants, it is the same." (D&C 1:38.) 
There is a great blessing for you 
young men of the Aaronic Priest- 
hood and you young ladies, if 
you'll grasp the implications of 
this statement of the Lord. Look 
to the Prophet, to your stake 
president, and to your bishop; 
respect their authority and follow 
their counsel. 

Respect, as we have said, is 
basic. Far too frequently in our 
present-day society, young people, 
insecure in their false maturity, 
turn to disrespect, thinking it will 
shore-up their own self-image. 
Little do they realize that in so 
doing, they are "betraying their 
own right to excellence." 

May we conclude by paraphas- 
ing a statement made by President 
McKay: "Little men may succeed, 
but without [respect] they can 
never be great." 


Improvement Era 

The Era Asks 

About Genealogy 

in the 

Church Today 

Genealogy has been a widely discussed and much-practiced art 
throughout the Church the past several years, and is the subject of the 
following intervieiv. The participants are: Elder Theodore M. Burton, 
Assistant to the Council of the Twelve, vice president and general man- 
ager of the Genealogical Society; Paid F. Royall, general secretary of 
the Genealogical Society; David E. Gardner, analyst in genealogy, 
Genealogical Society; Ernest C. Jeppsen, dean of the College of Indus- 
trial and Technical Education, Brigham Young University; Norman E. 
Wright, chairman, genealogical research technology, BYU; V. Ben Blox- 
ham, instructor in genealogical research, BYU. 

Q — Which of the many changes Second, one of the finest steps 
made within the past few years in forward has been to simplify our 
genealogy have influenced the procedures. Our book of instruc- 
work most? tions used to be nearly two inches 
Elder Burton — It's a thrilling thing thick, but we have cut it to one- 
to be on the threshold of great fourth that size and hope to 
progress, and the Church and the simplify it even further. 
Genealogical Society have taken Third, a small, highly trained 
some great strides forward, of core of specialists is providing re- 
which I can think of nearly a dozen, search papers on various language 
First, I think that providing free and genealogical problems for the 
access to all our genealogical li- benefit of all the Saints who will 
brary facilities has done more than read their research papers. This is 
any other single thing to give a fantastic service! 
impetus to research. Formerly, one Fourth, the Priesthood Gene- 
had to sign up and then wait to alogical Committee members per- 
obtain books or archive records; formed a wonderful mission as they 
now the books are on open shelves went throughout the Church en- 
on a help-yourself basis. couraging genealogical endeavors. 

Fifth, the program of putting 
genealogy into the hands of the 
priesthood, with the stake presi- 
dents and bishops in charge, has 
been of immense value. 

Sixth, the laboratory programs 
that were designed to help the 
Saints get the feel of genealogical 
work have caught fire and enlisted 
a remarkable portion of the Church 
membership. These include the 
MIA "genealogy in action" classes, 
the three-generation program, con- 

Elder T. M. Burton ponders question. 

February 1968 


sisting of seven family group sheets, 
and the fourth-generation program, 
consisting of eight family group 
sheets. With these programs we 
have tried to lift people out of 
classroom situations into laboratory 
situations where they actually work 
on genealogy. You see, in genealogy 
one learns faster by doing than by 

There are other steps that have 
contributed to the great rise in 
interest in genealogy, but these are 
some of the important ones of the 
past few years. 

Q — Are the three- and fourth-gen- 
eration programs to be continued? 
Elder Burton — Yes, because this is 
an extremely efficient training 
program for new converts coming 
into the Church and for our Saints 
who reactivate themselves in the 
Church or in genealogy. Also, 
many new families come into the 
Church through the marriages of 
our own youth. Thus, there will 
always be a need for a training 
program in genealogy. 

Q — Do Latter-day Saints supply 
sufficient names for temple work? 
Elder Burton — No, we couldn't 

Paul Royall notes stature of Gene- 
alogical Society to Jay M. Todd. 

keep the temples operating at top 
capacity if we relied solely on the 
present rate of research by Latter- 
day Saints. Because of this situa- 
tion, we had to create the records 
tabulation program, or the extract- 
ing of names and data from copies 
of parish registers for temple 
work. But we hope to develop a 
program whereby the Saints can 
supply sufficient names to keep the 
temples operating. Perhaps the 
time will come when the program 
of providing names for temple 
work can be centered on the stake 
level. However, as we build more 
and more temples, perhaps we will 
see the day when no matter how 
many names the Saints supply, we 
will still need names from parish 

Q — How do you feel about the 
state of involvement of the Saints 
in genealogy? 

Elder Burton — During the past six 
years we noticed a decrease of ac- 
tivity, but that trend has been 
arrested, and we are starting to 
climb again. Many reasons ac- 
counted for the decrease, including 
the speed of present-day life, but a 
new and significant interest in 
genealogy is manifesting itself, and 
we are most thrilled with it. Also, 
the accuracy and the quality of 
research work done by the Saints 
are improving. A sense of respon- 
sibility for doing better work is 
manifesting itself very much — and 
that is a marvelous thing when you 
think of it. 

Q — Will the day ever come when 
the Saints will be able to check 
records out of the genealogical 
libraries and take them home for 

Elder Burton — Not in the near fu- 
ture. Under the present arrange- 
ment, all records must stay in the 
buildings. But we are expanding 
branch libraries as fast as we can. 

At present we have 61 branch li- 
braries and supply so many micro- 
filmed copies of records to all our 
libraries that we have three large 
duplicating machines running over- 
time. The Church is the largest 
individual consumer of microfilm in 
the world— not counting the U.S. 
government as a whole, although 
we do consume more microfilm 
than any single government agency. 

Q — The program of microfilming 
original records throughout the 
world has been well publicized, 
but is it possible for the data on 
the records to be indexed so the 
Saints could quickly identify in- 
formation found therein? 
Elder Burton — We are presently 
experimenting with several stakes 
in an indexing program of this type. 
For example, the Springville 
(Utah) Stake is indexing the rec- 
ords from Iceland. They compile 
the census records and index them 
alphabetically. Some of the stakes 
in the Pacific are doing the same 
thing with Polynesian records. If 
these experiments prove fruitful, 
we will ask more stakes to 

It is amazing what modern tech- 
nology and facilities can do for us. 
For instance, 20 years ago, if one 
was interested in Danish research, 
he would probably go to Denmark, 
face language difficulties, trans- 
portation difficulties, problems in 
locating records, and the problem 
of spending sufficient time with 
the records to make his trip suc- 
cessful, and then be confronted 
with the problem of trying to read 
a foreign language in a script that 
might be archaic. Today, however, 
with modern methods of micro- 
filming, the records of Denmark 
and many other lands are brought 
to our genealogical libraries, and 
volunteer workers are translating 
the foreign archaic script into Eng- 
lish. In a few days of constant 


Improvement Era 

research, one can now find informa- 
tion that previously would have 
taken years of research. 

Q — What is the stature of the 
Church and its Genealogical So- 
ciety among professional orga- 

Royal I — It is becoming a common 
occurrence to hear professionals 
speak of the Church's Genealogical 
Society as the largest and best- 
equipped in the world. And our 
rather sudden rise to this stature 
within a 10- to 20-year period is 
remarkable. We receive many 
letters requesting the society to 
send its specialists to various pro- 
fessional genealogical organizations 
on speaking assignments. Often, 
we have been able to oblige them 
if one of our people has had a stake 
conference assigment nearby. The 
stature and opening of doors that 
have come from this kind of fellow- 
ship have been truly inspiring. 

Q — What has been the response 
to the research papers that you 
have published through the Era? 
(See page 22 of this issue.) 
Elder Burton — There has been a 
tremendous upsurge of interest by 
our own members, and we have a 
large file of complimentary letters 
from other professional genealogi- 
cal organizations, which often as 
not offer to trade or exchange 
some of their records for copies of 
ours. This is an excellent way to 
increase our library at minimal cost. 
By the way, it is often necessary to 
buy collections of records, so we 
welcome contributions! 

Q — With the acquisition of rec- 
ords from around the world, how 
have you coped with the in- 
creased need for qualified re- 
searchers to assist Saints in 
genealogical research problems? 
Elder Burton — This answer in- 
cludes another of the significant 

steps forward. Instead of the 
Genealogical Society providing 
trained researchers for the Saints, 
it was decided that we would 
begin a system of accrediting re- 
searchers. Anyone with the neces- 
sary training and knowledge could 
take an examination to determine 

his competency. We have over 
one hundred such accredited re- 
searchers. Thus, those who have 
particular genealogical research 
needs can hire accredited research- 
ers for difficult problems. In this 
we have been helped considerably 
by Brigham Young University and 

Richard L Evans 

The Spoken Word 

At times we may feel the pressure of people. But when we feel 
crowded or impatient with people, we may well think how empty 
and dreary, how lonely and poor and purposeless life would be 
without those who live with us and around us. "If a wise man were 
granted a life of abundance of everything material, so that he had leisure 
to contemplate everything worth knowing," said Cicero, "still if he could 
not communicate with another human being he would abandon life." 1 
In many places, we could still spread out and live hermit-like and see 
less of others, if we wanted to, but we come together for convenience, 
for skills and services, for education, for cultural enrichment. We owe 
a debt to others for food prepared, for medicines and those who admin- 
ister them, for shelter and conveniences, and for services and safety; 
but more than this— for a broadening of life, for company and companion- 
ship, for just being there, for relieving us of sheer loneliness. And since 
this is so, among life's foremost lessons is to learn to get along, and to 
see and consider what other people really mean to us. There can be 
too many. Life can become cluttered. People can be too impersonal. 
But there could also be too few, with poverty of ideas and emptiness of 
life. And with too few, we soon would sense not only our dependence 
on others, but the blessing of knowing there is someone there and the 
debt we owe each other for the mere fact of human feeling. At home, 
and worldwide, we need more of appreciation and less of fault-finding, 
that the warmth and goodwill of the Prince of Peace, the Master of man- 
kind, may move more among us, with more awareness of what we owe 
to others. Despite all misunderstandings, despite all problems and 
impatience, we owe something to all the people there are, for the en- 
richment and variety of life, for the simple privilege of association. For 
this, and for much more, we owe each other kindness and care and con- 
sideration. "No man is an island," 2 wrote John Donne. There is no 
one who doesn't need others, whether he knows it or not. 

MDicero, quoted in The Royal Bank of Canada Monthly Letter, "Communication Is Vital," Vol. 48, 

No. 10. 

2 John Donne, Seventh Century Meditation, No. 17. 

* "The Spoken Word" from Temple Square, presented over KSL and the Columbia 
Broadcasting System December 3, 1967. Copyright 1967. 

February 1968 


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its staff of experts in genealogy. 
Wright — Since we started our two- 
year genealogical course program 
at BYU six years ago, we have 
graduated 51 students in the pro- 
gram, from which 14 of these stu- 
dents have applied and successfully 
passed the accreditation examina- 
tion. Some of the graduates are 
doing professional genealogy work 
full time, others part-time. 

Q — How many universities offer 
credit or a degree in this type of 

Jeppsen — There is no university in 
the U.S., including BYU, that gives 
a bachelor's degree in genealogical 
research. We do give an associate 
degree, however, which is a two- 
year degree for technicians. We are 
studying the possibility of a bache- 
lor's degree in genealogical re- 
search and library science. Student 
interest in genealogical classes at 
BYU has been very high. A few 
other schools, such as American 
University in Washington, D.C., do 
give credit classes in genealogical 
research. At one time at least one 
university in Germany offered a 
degree in genealogical research. 
Bloxham — Both the University of 

V. Ben Bloxham and David E. Gardner 
add research know-how to interview. 

Improvement Era 

Arizona at Tucson and the 
California State Department of 
Continuing Education teach gene- 
alogical research. 

Gardner — Several universities in 
England provide course work in 
related fields, particularly the Uni- 
versity of London and the Uni- 
versity of Kent. The latter school 
is building a full-degree program 
in the area of history, genealogy, 
and family history. 
Elder Burton — In line with what 
other universities are doing, I think 
Latter-day Saints can take pride in 
what BYU is doing to assist the 
Saints and the Church through its 
genealogical course work. But 
what should be of widespread in- 
terest to all genealogically minded 
Latter-day Saints is our priesthood 
genealogy seminar held annually at 

Q — Who is invited to attend this 

Elder Burton — Anyone who is in- 
terested in genealogy and the 
priesthood aspects of it. 
Gardner — This certainly would in- 
clude those who hold ward and 
stake positions that deal with gene- 
alogy: stake presidents, high coun- 

cilors, bishops, high priest group 
leaders, quorum presidencies, ward 
record examiners, instructors, 
branch librarians. About 800 
people attended last year's seminar. 

Q — What is the schedule for the 
next seminar? 

Elder Burton — Beginning Monday, 
August 12, through Friday, August 
16, on the BYU campus, we will 
intently study aspects of genealogy. 
Each day a General Authority will 

Throughout the week we will 
study such things as how to 
obtain ■ genealogical information 
from the Genealogical Society, 
how to use the Pedigree Referral 
Service, how to get information 
from the Temple Records Index 
Bureau, how to get information 
from archives, how to use gene- 
alogical branch libraries. We will 
be studying beginning and ad- 
vanced research methods and pro- 
cedures, and how to solve problems 
in genealogy. There will be tech- 
nical courses on research problems 
in the U.S., Canada, Latin Amer- 
ica, and various European countries. 
We will also discuss priesthood 
genealogy in the future and where 


Ernest C. Jeppsen and Norman E. Wright of Brigham Young University's 
genealogical program discuss the BYU's contributions to genealogy. 

February 1968 

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today's knowledge and technology 
are taking us. 

Bloxham — For example, we are 
going to have actual documents 
placed on transparencies, and we 
will show how to use passenger 
lists of arrivals, Indian census 
records, federal census records, mil- 
itary documents. The latest 
research by professional organiza- 
tions throughout the world will be 
explained. From the standpoint of 
one interested in genealogy, the 
kind of training that will be of- 
fered by the Genealogical Society 
and BYU's leading genealogical ex- 
perts and by our General Authori- 
ties who will speak on priesthood 
genealogy will be all encompass- 
ing. This really is a remarkable 

Wright — All interested persons 
should correspond with Special 
Courses and Conferences at Brig- 
ham Young University, Provo, 
Utah, at their earliest convenience. 
Registration fee is $10 for the 
week. There will be three instruc- 
tional periods of one and one-half 
hours each, held between 8:30 a.m. 
and 4:30 p.m. Housing may be ob- 
tained on or off campus. On 
campus, board and room will cost 

Improvement Era 

between $3 and $5 per day for a 
man and wife. 

Jeppsen — For those who may be 
interested, numerous families who 
attended last year did so as part 
of their family vacation, because 
on our campus we feature swim- 
ming, bowling, hobby shops, danc- 
ing, golf, tennis, movies, dramas, 
and student musicals. Nearby are 
the canyons and Utah Lake for hik- 
ing, fishing, camping, and boating. 
It is a marvelous way to introduce 
one's family to BYU, and Salt Lake 
City and Church headquarters are 
less than an hour away. In terms of 
cost, last year most couples spent 
between $35 and $50 total for board 
and room while at the seminar. 
Housing is available with cooking 
facilities both for couples and for 
those wishing to bring their 

Elder Burton — In closing, I would 
like to note that some amazing and 
inspiring things have been done 
or set in motion the past few years, 
but the future looks even brighter. 
We live in a time that provides us 
with countless opportunities to per- 
form the temple ordinances for 
our beloved and worthy progeni- 
tors. It is a thrilling age! O 

Elder Theodore M. Burton reviews 
progress of the Genealogical Society, 
and also discusses upcoming Priest- 
hood-Genealogy Seminar to be held in 
August at Brig ham Young University. 

February 1968 


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• "Life is not kicking me about— 
it is shoving me around, then sit- 
ting on me so hard that I feel 
smothered." These words came 
over the phone to a friendly ear. 
The caller went on to say that she 
had six children all under seven 
years of age, that she lived a life 
of confusion and frustration, and 
that she was ready to "start climb- 
ing the walls." The house was 
never in order, the children never 
quiet, and there was never time in 
the day to do all there was to be 
done. Then in a longing voice, she 
added, "I'm not a person in my own 
right any more. I've been smashed 
into a million pieces, and I haven't 
even time to stop and pick up the 
fragments. I've come to the end of 

There was an unuttered cry for 
help in those words. Such thoughts 
are duplicated in hundreds of 
homes by hundreds of young 
mothers. Is there an easy remedy? 
Life for a young mother with a 
number of children is not simple, 
but it can be exciting. It can be a 
happy time, and it can be a most 
rewarding adventure. One must 
always remember, when day -by- 
day struggling seems insurmount- 
able, to repeat the thought, "This 
too will pass." All too soon the 

years go by, and the sons are six 
feet tall and wage-earning fathers; 
and the daughters, now mothers 
themselves, are in their cycle of 
rearing little children. Life is a 
circle one travels, and the wheel 
never stops. It is difficult to choose 
the years that are the most enjoy- 
able, but when a vote is taken in 
later life, the child-rearing years 
usually win the count. 

There are many ways to turn the 
drudgery of these years into joy. 
One way is to remember that each 
little one is a child of God, an in- 
dividual loaned to you to be taught 
and loved and enjoyed. When this 
baby is put into your arms, you can 
almost hear the words: "This child 
is yours to mold and guide; there 
is nothing more important in this 
life." You now have the privilege 
of helping to build a worthwhile 
human being. No work in the world 
pays like "mother work." 

If you find yourself frustrated, 
put first things first. Try not to be 
a perfectionist as a housekeeper. 
Realize that the children come be- 
fore the household duties and be- 
fore any interests outside the home. 
Learn to organize your life hap- 
pily. Don't jam any one day too 
full; leave time for the unexpected. 
Any schedule should have plenty of 

leeway. In this budgeting of time, 
consider yourself. Plan for a few 
minutes in each day to go into your 
own room and close the door. 
Occasionally have a babysitter 
come in while you put on fresh lip- 
stick and walk into the outside 
World for a few hours. 

There is a home on almost every 
block where children like to gather. 
It is a place where the mother 
loves children. She takes time for 
each question; she listens as each 
little voice speaks. She believes that 
woman is that she might have joy. 
There is a feeling of optimism in 
her every motion, glance, and word. 
Though others may moan when 
they see one cloud in the sky, she 
is thankful for a patch of blue. 
Perhaps this house is not too clean, 
but the children feel only the love. 
However, if the home is more than 
cluttered, that is not good. There 
can be a balance. 

A husband and children deserve 
a basically clean home. Frustra- 
tion comes to some people because 
confusion and clutter upset some- 
thing within them. They get 
bogged down in the "now." In such 
cases the housekeeping should be 
scheduled. Perhaps an hour first 
thing in the morning might be 
taken to tidy up the whole house; 


Improvement Era 

then one or two hours each day 
could be spent to clean one room 
thoroughly. By the end of the week, 
the house will be cleaned, and each 
day will find a neat home and a 
serene mother. Include in this 
schedule a plan for mother and the 
children to spend a few minutes 
picking up the clutter again just 
before father comes home in the 

Children can be happy doing 
housework if mother is cheerful 
and makes a game of it. A two- 
year-old is able to pick up toys if 
this is consistently expected of him. 
A five-year-old can dust, empty 
wastepaper baskets, and do other 
chores. An eight- or ten-year-old 
child is capable of helping the 
younger children bathe and get to 
bed in the evening. Ironing, dish- 
washing, bedmaking, vacuuming, 
and many other household tasks 
can be done by children with 
mother supervising and making it 
fun. Try to sing or whistle while 
you work; the job gets done more 
quickly that way. 

A mother should be consistent in 
her attitude toward the children 
helping in the home. Each day, 
with few exceptions, every little 
person should do his chores. A 
mother needs a steady, not a heavy, 
hand in guiding the children with 
their work. Rewards are not taboo 
but blackmail is. If the children 
do a certain assignment well, there 
could be a treat, but try not to 
threaten the boy or girl if a task 
is not done satisfactorily. Without 
cross words, have the child do the 
work over again. A mother's con- 
sistency gives strength to her 

Too many interests outside the 
home can make a woman confused 
and unhappy. It is not wise to 
accept everything that is asked of 
one. Good judgment should be 
used. A young mother needs out- 
side interests but she does not need 
to carry added pressures to the det- 

riment of her own family. Many a 
young mother, in welcoming a di- 
version, will accept a number of 
responsibilities in civic, church, and 
social organizations, which may not 
leave her enough time for her fam- 
ily's demands. Only frustration 
can follow. Every woman should 
use wisdom. A husband and chil- 
dren should always come first in 
any plans. 

A person may feel guilty because 
she has spoken crossly, or because 
the house is not in perfect order, 
or because she took a nap, or be- 
cause she shows a lack of consis- 
tency. But a mother must not live 
a life of guilt. Just do the best at 
the moment, then stand relaxed. 
Don't waste time and energy on 
past shortcomings; try harder and 
then relax more. 

Confusion at breakfast and at 
the dinner hour is frustrating to 
everyone. Planning ahead can 
rectify this. Work out menus and 
shop for the needs of seven break- 
fasts at one time; then do some- 
thing before going to bed at night 
to lighten the preparation of 
breakfast the next morning. This 
planning will help insure the 
needed foods for the morning 
meal. There is nothing more frus- 
trating than trying to fix breakfast 
without eggs or milk. It is also 
foolish for a tired mother to plan 
a dinner for her family with a great 
deal of last-minute preparation. A 
meal can be delicious and nourish- 
ing and yet simple. Plan dinners 
that can be prepared earlier in the 
day with a minimum of last-minute 
doing. Oven meals fit into this 
category. Try some of the follow- 
ing suggestions; then at dinner 
time sit contentedly and relaxed 
and enjoy your family. 


The most relaxing of all meals 
to prepare is the oven dinner. Most 
of the preparation can be done 
early in the day and the prepared 

dish can be chilled in the refriger- 
ator. Then, with the help of the 
oven, only 30 to 60 minutes is 
needed to present the family with 
a hot, nourishing, delicious meal. 
Ovens through the ages have pro- 
duced fragrant meats and breads, 
but nothing can compare to a 
modern oven. It can do all but the 
initial preparation of the food. A 
finger touches a button, and a cold 
oven turns itself on at a designated 
time to a set temperature. Human 
beings can be miles away but still 
dinner can start to cook and be 
ready when the family assembles 
around the dinner table. It's magic! 
This miracle can help a busy 
mother to be cheerful, calm, and 
serene throughout the dinner hour. 

Cheese and Meat Casserole 

(8 servings) 

y 2 pound noodles 
iy 2 pounds lean ground beef 

2 small cans tomato sauce 
V 2 cup chili sauce 

1 8-ounce carton small curd cottage 

1 8-ounce package cream cheese 
Vi cup evaporated milk 

1 teaspoon lemon juice 
Y 3 cup minced green onions 

Early in the day, cook the noodles as 
directed on the package; drain. Saute 
the ground beef and stir in the tomato 
sauce and the chili sauce. Remove from 
heat. Combine cottage cheese, cream 
cheese, evaporated milk, lemon juice, 
onions. In a 2-quart casserole spread 
half the noodles; cover with the cheese 
mixture; then add the rest of the 
noodles. Pour the tomato-meat sauce 
over all. Bake in a 350° F. oven until 
heated through. 

Lima Bean Casserole 

(6 to 8 servings) 

2 packages frozen lima beans 

1 can condensed mushroom soup 


Cook the lima beans in unsalted water 
until just tender; drain. Stir in the soup. 
Thin slightly with milk if desired. Put 
into a casserole. Garnish with buttered 
cracker crumbs and bake in a 350° F. 
oven until bubbly and brown on top. 

Hungry Boy Casserole 

(8 servings) 

1 package (8 ounces) shell macaroni 

2 pounds ground beef 
1 cup chopped onion 

1 cup chopped green pepper 
iy 2 teaspoons salt 
Vs teaspoon pepper -► 

February 1968 


1 can (8 ounces) whole kernel corn, 

2 cans condensed tomato soup 
y 2 cup chopped ripe olives 

Cook the macaroni according to direc- 
tions on package and drain. Brown the 
meat; add the onion and green pepper, 
cover the skillet, and simmer until they 
are softened. Combine this mixture 
with the salt, pepper, macaroni, corn, 
tomato soup, and ripe olives. Place in a 
2V2-qijart casserole, top with buttered 
cornflakes, and bake in a 350° F. oven 
for 30 minutes. 

Veal Loaf 

(6 to 8 servings) 





pounds ground veal 
pound ground pork 
cup coarse bread crumbs 
cup evaporated milk 
eggs, slightly beaten 
tablespoons lemon juice 
teaspoon salt 
teaspoon celery salt 
teaspoon pepper 
slices bacon 

Combine all ingredients except bacon, 
and pack into a greased 9x5 loaf pan. 
Dice the bacon and place on top of loaf. 
Store in refrigerator. Bake at 350° F. 
for about iy 2 hours. 

Beef Italian 

(6 servings) 

iy 2 pounds round steak, boneless 
1 egg, beaten 

y 3 cup Parmesan cheese 

y 3 cup fine bread crumbs 
Cooking oil 
Dash of pepper 
Dash of oregano 

Vi cup chopped onion 
\y 2 teaspoons sugar 

1 6-ounce can tomato paste 

2 cups hot water 

V2 pound cheese, sliced 

Pound the steak very thin; cut into 6 
servings. Dip the meat into the beaten 
egg, then roll in mixture of Parmesan 
cheese and crumbs. Brown steak, sea- 
soned with pepper and oregano, in oil 
over medium heat. Place in shallow 
pan. Cook onion in the oil until soft but 
not brown; stir in the other ingredients 
except the cheese. Gradually add the 
hot water, stirring. Pour most of the 
sauce over the meat; top with cheese 
slices and remaining sauce. Bake at 
350° F. for 1 hour. 

Oven Stew 

(Serves 6 to 8) 
2 pounds beef, cut into 1-inch cubes 
2 onions, sliced 
4 carrots, sliced y^-'mch thick 
1 turnip, sliced 

1 cup thinly sliced cabbage 

1 cup diced celery 

3 sprigs parsley 
Salt to taste 
y 2 teaspoon peppercorns 

1 bay leaf 

5 cloves 

2 cups water 

1 large can tomatoes 

3 tablespoons flour 

1 package frozen peas 

Toss the beef in seasoned flour and 
brown in 2 tablespoons hot oil. Add all 
the other ingredients with the exception 
of the flour and peas. Place in a baking 
dish. Cover, and bake at 250° F. for 3 
hours or until the meat and vegetables 
are tender. Ten minutes before serving, 
stir in the flour and peas. 

Country Ham Casserole 

(Serves 6-8) 

6 hard-cooked eggs, sliced 

2 cups diced cooked ham 

5 tablespoons melted butter 

7 tablespoons flour 

4 cups milk 

3 tablespoons chopped onion 

3 tablespoons chopped green pepper 
3 tablespoons chopped celery 

Salt and pepper to taste 

y 2 teaspoon mustard 

Arrange the eggs and ham in layers in 
a greased casserole. In a skillet or 
saucepan blend the flour in the butter 
and gradually stir in the milk. Cook, 
stirring until thickened. Add the other 
ingredients and pour over the ham and 
eggs. Sprinkle with bread crumbs mixed 
with grated cheese. Chill until about 45 
minutes before serving. Heat in 350° 
F. oven until browned and bubbly. 

Family Tuna Casserole 

(Serves 6) 

3 cups cooked rice 

1 can cream of mushroom soup 

% cup evaporated milk 

V2 teaspoon thyme 

1 tablespoon grated onion 

1 teaspoon Worcestershire sauce 

1 cup chopped celery 

1 small can pimiento, chopped 

2 cans tuna 

1 cup grated cheese 

Combine all the ingredients. Pour into 
a buttered casserole. Sprinkle with 
crushed potato chips. Chill until 45 
minutes before serving. Bake in a 375° 
F. oven. 

Chicken and Rice Casserole 
(Serves 6) 

1 cup uncooked rice 

2 tablespoons butter 

1 cup diced celery 

V£ cup diced green pepper 
2y 2 cups chicken broth 
Salt and pepper to taste 

2 cups cooked chicken 

2 tablespoons cornstarch 
1 teaspoon lemon juice 
y 2 package frozen peas 
1 cup crushed potato chips 

Fry the rice in the butter until it is 
golden brown. Add the celery, green 
pepper, y 2 cup chicken broth, and sea- 
son to taste. Cook until all moisture is 
gone. Thicken 2 cups chicken broth 
with cornstarch. Add the diced chicken 
and lemon juice, and season to taste. 
Put alternate layers of rice, chicken, 
and peas in a buttered casserole. End 
with the chicken mixture. Top with 
crushed potato chips. Chill until just 
before dinner. Bake in a 350° F. oven 
for 30 to 45 minutes. 

Home, Sweet Home 

Snacks have the ability to 
do many things. They can: 

Help pass the time away. 

Enliven a twosome. 

Encourage a tot. 

Expand a waist. 

Ruin a figure. 

Stimulate an appetite. 

Create a mood. 

Be a reward. 

Smother a desire. 

Kill a resolution. 

Add joy to a moment. 

Warm a heart. 

Entertain a group. 

Make an event special. 

An inexpensive, low-calorie snack for 
a family evening is always welcome. 
Next week try serving these corn crisps 
and hot tomato juice. 

Grace's Corn Crisps 

1 cup water 

2 tablespoons butter 

1 cup yellow cornmeal 
y 2 teaspoon salt 
onion salt 
Parmesan cheese 

Bring the water and butter to a boil; 
add cornmeal and salt all at once, stir- 
ring rapidly. Remove from heat and 
stir until dough forms a ball. Divide it 
into 2 parts. Place each ball on a well- 
buttered cookie sheet and smooth out 
with fingers until the pan is covered. 
The dough will be very thin, but keep 
patting it until the sheet is covered. 
Bake in a 375° F. oven until the edges 
curl and the corn crisp is a golden 
brown. Sprinkle with onion salt and 
Parmesan cheese. When cool, remove 
the corn crisps from the pans in large 
pieces. Gently place in an attractive 
dish or basket. Nibble and enjoy. This 
snack is good served as an accom- 
paniment to soup, fruit cocktail, fish 
cocktail, or punch. O 


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February 1968 


Dr. Charles H. Townes' work 

on the laser won him the 1964 Nobel Prize. 

He is presently provost and professor 

of physics at Massachusetts 

Institute of Technology. 

Convergence of 

Science and 

By Charles H. Townes 

The ever-increasing success of 
science has posed many chal- 
lenges and conflicts for religion — 
conflicts that are resolved in individual 
lives in a variety of ways. Some accept 
both religion and science as dealing 
with quite different methods, and thus 
separate them so widely in their think- 
ing that no direct confrontation is pos- 
sible. Some repair rather completely 
to the camp of science or of religion 
and regard the other as of little impor- 
tance, if not downright harmful. 

To me science and religion are both 
universal and basically very similar. In 
fact, to make the argument clear, I 
should like to adopt the rather extreme 
point of view that their differences are 
largely superficial, and that the two 
become almost indistinguishable if we 
look at the real nature of each. It is 
perhaps science whose real nature is 
the less obvious, because of its blind- 
ing superficial successes. To explain 
this, and to give perspective to the non- 
scientists, we must consider a bit of 
the history and development of science. 
The march of science during the 19th 
century produced enormous confidence 
in its success and generality. One 
field after another fell before the ob- 
jective inquiry, experimental approach, 
and logic of science. Scientific laws 
appeared to take on an absolute quality, 
and it was very easy to be convinced 

From Think, March-April 1966. Used with permission. 

that science in time would explain 

This was the time when Laplace 
could believe that if he knew the posi- 
tion and velocity of every particle in 
the universe and could calculate suffi- 
ciently well, he would then know the 
entire future. Laplace was simply 
expressing the evident experience of 
the time, that the success and precision 
of scientific laws had changed deter- 
minism from a speculative argument 
to one that seemed inescapable. 

This was the time when the devout 
Pasteur, asked how he as a scientist 
could be religious, simply replied that 
his laboratory was one realm, and that 
his home and religion were a com- 
pletely different one. 

There are today many vestiges of this 
19th century scientific absolutism in 
our thinking and attitudes. It has given 
Communism, based on Marx's 19th 
century background, some of its sense 
of the inexorable course of history and 
of "scientific" planning of society. 

Toward the end of the 19th century, 
many physical scientists viewed their 
work as almost complete and needing 
only some extension and more detailed 
refinement. But soon after, deep 
problems began to appear. The world 
seems relatively unaware of how deep 
these problems really were and of the 
extent to which some of the most 
fundamental scientific ideas have 

been overturned by them. Perhaps 
this unawareness is because science 
has been vigorous in changing itself 
and continuing to press and has also 
diverted attention by ever more suc- 
cesses in solving the practical problems 
of life. 

Many of the philosophical and con- 
ceptional bases of science have, in 
fact, been disturbed and revolution- 
ized. The poignancy of these changes 
can be grasped only through sampling 
them. For example, the question 
whether light consists of small particles 
shot out by light sources or by wave 
disturbances originated by them had 
been debated for some time by the 
great figures of science. The question 
was finally settled in the early 19th 
century by brilliant experiments that 
could be thoroughly interpreted by 
theory. The experiments told scien- 
tists of the time that light was un- 
equivocally a wave and not particles. 
But about 1900, other experiments 
turned up that showed just as un- 
equivocally that light is a stream of 
particles rather than waves. Thus 
physicists were presented with a deeply 
disturbing paradox. Its solution took 
several decades and was only accom- 
plished in the mid-1920's by the devel- 
opment of a new set of ideas known 
as quantum mechanics. 

The trouble was that scientists were 
thinking in terms of their common 


Improvement Era 

Albert Einstein and Job. Faith is necessary to men of both science and religion, says Dr. 
Townes. A firm belief in an orderly universe, somewhat like Job's durable conviction, 
sustained Einstein. "God is very subtle," he once remarked, "but he is not malicious." 

everyday experience, and that experi- 
ence encompassed the behavior of 
large objects but not yet many atomic 
phenomena. Examination of light or 
atoms in detail brings us into a new 
realm of very small quantities with 
which we have had no previous ex- 
perience, and where our intuitions 
could well be untrustworthy. And now 
in retrospect, it is not at all surprising 
that the study of matter on the atomic 
scale has taught us new things, and 
that some are inconsistent with ideas 
that previously had seemed so clear. 

Physicists today believe that light is 
neither precisely a wave nor a particle, 
but both, and we were mistaken in even 
asking the question, "Is light a particle 
or is it a wave?" It can display both 
properties. So can all matter, includ- 
ing baseballs and locomotives. We 
don't ordinarily observe this duality in 
large objects, because they do not 
show wave properties prominently. But 
in principle we believe they are there. 

We have come to believe other 
strange phenomena as well. Suppose 

an electron is put in a long box where 
it may travel back and forth. Physical 
theory now tells us that, under certain 
conditions, the electron will sometimes 
be found toward one end of the box 
and sometimes toward the other, but 
never in the middle. This statement 
clashes absurdly with ideas of an elec- 
tron moving back and forth, and yet 
most physicists today are quite con- 
vinced of its validity and can demon- 
strate its essential truth in the 

yi nother strange aspect of the new 
/ \ quantum mechanics is called 
* * the uncertainty principle. 
This principle shows that if we try to 
say exactly where a particle (or object) 
is, we cannot at the same time say 
exactly how fast it is going and in what 
direction; or, if we determine its ve- 
locity, we can never say exactly what 
its position is. According to this theory, 
Laplace was wrong from the beginning. 
If he were alive today, he would prob- 
ably understand along with other 
contemporary physicists that it is 

fundamentally impossible to obtain the 
information necessary for his precise 
predictions, even if he were dealing 
with only one single particle, rather 
than with the entire universe. 

The modern laws of science seem, 
then, to have turned our thinking away 
from complete determinism and to- 
ward a world where chance plays a 
major role. It is chance on an atomic 
scale, but there are situations and 
times when the random change in posi- 
tion of one atom or one electron can 
materially affect the large-scale affairs 
of life and, in fact, our entire society. 
A striking example involves Queen 
Victoria, who, through one such event 
on an atomic scale, became a mutant 
and passed on to certain male de- 
scendants in Europe's royal families 
the trait of hemophilia. Thus one un- 
predictable event on an atomic scale 
had its effect on both the Spanish 
royal family and, through an afflicted 
czarevitch, on the stability of the 
Russian throne. 

This new view of a world that is not 

February 1968 


some of the most 

fundamental scientific 

ideas have 

been overturned . . ." 

predictable from physical laws was not 
at all easy for physicists of the older 
tradition to accept. Even Einstein, one 
of the architects of quantum mechan- 
ics, never completely accepted the 
indeterminism of chance that it implies. 
"Herr Gott wurfelt nicht" — the Lord 
God doesn't throw dice! It is interest- 
ing to note also that Russian Com- 
munism, with its roots in 19th century 
determinism, for a long time took a 
strong doctrinaire position against the 
new physics of quantum mechanics. 

When scientists pressed on to ex- 
amine still other realms outside our 
common experience, further surprises 
were found. For objects of much 
higher velocities than we ordinarily 
experience, relativity shows that very 
strange things happen. First, objects 
can never go faster than a certain 
speed, regardless of how hard they 
are pushed. Their absolute maximum 
speed is that of light — 186,000 miles 
per second. Further, when objects are 
going fast, they become shorter and 
more massive — they change shape and 
also weigh more. Even time moves at 
a different rate; if we send a clock 
off at a high velocity, it runs slower. 

This peculiar behavior of time is the 
origin of the famous cat-kitten con- 
ceptual experiment. Take a litter of six 
kittens and divide them into two 
groups. Keep three of them on earth; 
send the other three off in a rocket 
at a speed nearly as fast as light, and 

after one year bring them back. The 
earth kittens will obviously have be- 
come cats, but the ones sent into 
space will have remained kittens. This 
theory has not been tested with kittens, 
but it has been checked experimentally 
with the aging of inanimate objects 
and seems to be quite correct. Today 
the vast majority of scientists believe 
it true. 

Scientists have now become a good 
deal more cautious and modest about 
extending scientific ideas into realms 
where they have not yet been thor- 
oughly tested. Of course, an important 
part of the game of science is, in fact, 
the development of general laws that 
can be extended into new realms. These 
laws are often remarkably successful 
in telling us new things or in predict- 
ing things that we have not yet directly 
observed. And yet we must always be 
aware that such extensions may be 
wrong, and wrong in very fundamental 
ways. In spite of all the changes in 
our views, it is reassuring to note that 
the laws of 19th century science were 
not so far wrong in the realm in which 
they were initially applied — that of 
ordinary velocities and of objects 
larger than the point of a pin. In this 
realm they were essentially right, and 
we still teach the laws of Newton or of 
Maxwell, because in their own im- 
portant sphere they are valid and 

We know today that the most 
sophisticated present scientific the- 
ories, including modern quantum 
mechanics, are still incomplete. We 
use them because in certain areas they 
are so amazingly right. Yet they lead 
us at times into inconsistencies that 
we do not understand, and where we 
must recognize that we have missed 
some crucial ideas. We simply admit 
and accept the paradoxes and hope that 
sometime in the future they will be 
resolved by a more complete under- 
standing. In fact, by recognizing these 
paradoxes clearly and studying them, 
we can perhaps best understand the 
limitations in our thinking and correct 

With this background on the real 
state of scientific understanding, we 
come now to the similarity and near 
identity of science and religion. The 
goal of science is to discover the order 
in the universe, and to understand 
through this order the things we sense 
around us — even man himself. This 
order we express as scientific principles 
or laws, striving to state them in the 
simplest and yet most inclusive ways. 
I believe the goal of religion is to un- 
derstand (and hence accept) the 
purpose and meaning of our universe 
and how we fit into it. Most religions 
see a unifying and inclusive origin of 
meaning, and this supreme purpose- 
ful force we call God. 

Understanding the order in the uni- 
verse and understanding the purpose 
in the universe are not identical, but 
they are also not very far apart. It is 
interesting that the Japanese word for 
physics is butsuri, which translated 
means simply the reason for things. 
Thus we readily and inevitably link 
closely together the nature and the 
purpose of our universe. 

What are the aspects of religion 
and science that often make them 
seem almost diametrically opposite? 
Many of them come, I believe, out of 
differences in language used for his- 
torical reasons, and many from quanti- 
tative differences that are large enough 
that unconsciously we assume they are 
qualitative ones. Let us consider some 
of the aspects where science and re- 
ligion may superficially look very 

The essential role of faith in religion 
is so well-known that taking things on 
faith rather than proving them is 
usually taken as characteristic of re- 
ligion and as distinguishing religion 
from science. But faith is essential to 
science too, although we do not so 
generally recognize the basic need and 
nature of faith in science. 

Faith is necessary for the scientist 
even to get started, and deep faith is 
necessary for him to carry out his 
tougher tasks. Why? Because he must 
have confidence that there is order in 


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Most important 

scientific discoveries 

.are closely akin 

to revelation 

the universe and that the human mind 
— in fact, his own mind — has a good 
chance of understanding this order. 
Without this confidence, there would 
be little point in intense effort to try 
to understand a presumably disorderly 
or incomprehensible world. Such a 
world would take us back to the days 
of superstition, when man thought 
capricious forces manipulated his uni- 
verse. In fact, it is just this faith in an 
orderly universe, understandable to 
man, that allowed the basic change 
from an age of superstition to an age 
of science and has made possible our 
scientific progress. 

The necessity of faith in science is 
reminiscent of the description of re- 
ligious faith attributed to Constantine: 
"I believe so that I may know." But 
such faith is now so deeply rooted in 
the scientist that most of us never stop 
to think that it is there at all. 

Einstein affords a rather explicit 
example of faith in order, and many of 
his contributions come from intuitive 
devotion to a particularly appealing 
type of order. One of his famous re- 
marks is inscribed in German in Fine 
Hall at Princeton: "God is very subtle, 
but he is not malicious." That is, the 
world that God has constructed may 
be very intricate and difficult for us to 
understand, but it is not arbitrary and 
illogical. Einstein spent the last half 

of his life looking for a unity between 
gravitational and electromagnetic fields. 
Many physicists feel that he was on 
the wrong track, and no one yet knows 
whether he made any substantial 
progress. But he had faith in a great 
vision of unity and order, and he 
worked intensively at it for 30 years 
or more. Einstein had to have the kind 
of dogged conviction that could have 
allowed him to say with Job, "Though 
he slay me, yet will I trust in him." 

For lesser scientists, on lesser 
projects, there are frequent occasions 
when things just don't make sense, and 
making order and understanding out of 
one's work seems almost hopeless. 
But still the scientist has faith that 
there is order to be found, and that 
either he or his colleagues will some- 
day find it. 

Another common idea about the 
difference between science and 
religion is based on their meth- 
ods of discovery. Religion's discoveries 
often come by great revelations. 
Scientific knowledge comes by logical 
deductions, or by the accumulation of 
data that are analyzed by established 
methods in order to draw generaliza- 
tions called laws. But such a de- 
scription of scientific discovery is a 
travesty on the real thing. Most of the 
important scientific discoveries come 
about very differently and are much 
more closely akin to revelation. The 
term itself is generally not used for 
scientific discovery, since we are in 
the habit of reserving revelation for the 
religious realm. In scientific circles 
one speaks of intuition, accidental 
discovery, or simply that someone had 
a wonderful idea. 

If we compare how great scientific 
ideas arrive, we see that they all look 
remarkably like religious revelation 
viewed in a non-mystical way. 

Think of Moses in the desert, long 
troubled and wondering about the 
problem of saving the children of 
Israel, when suddenly he had a revela- 
tion by the burning bush. 

Consider some of the revelations of 
the New Testament. 

Improvement Era 

Think of Gautama Buddha, who 
traveled and inquired for years in an 
effort to understand what was good 
and then one day sat down quietly 
under a Bo tree where his great ideas 
were revealed. 

Similarly, the scientist, after hard 
work and much emotional and intel- 
lectual commitment to a troubling 
problem, sometimes suddenly sees the 
answer. Such ideas much more often 
come during off-moments than while 
confronting data. 

A striking and well-known example is 
the discovery of the benzene ring by 
Kekule, who, while musing at his fire- 
side, was led to the idea of a vision 
of snakes taking their tails in their 

We cannot yet describe the hu- 
man process that leads to the crea- 
tion of an important and substantially 
new scientific insight. But it is clear 
that the great scientific discoveries, 
the real leaps, do not usually come 
from the so-called "scientific method," 
but rather more as did Kekule's — per- 
haps with less picturesque imagery, 
but by revelations that are just as 

Another aspect of the difference be- 
tween science and religion is based on 
the notion that religious ideas depend 
only on faith and revelation, while 
science succeeds in actually proving its 
points. In this view, proofs give to 
scientific ideas a certain kind of abso- 
lutism and universalism that religious 
ideas have only in the claims of their 
proponents. But the actual nature of 
scientific "proof" is rather different 
from such simple ideas. 

Mathematical or logical proof in- 
volves choice of some set of postu- 
lates, which hopefully are consistent 
with one another and which apply to a 
situation of interest. In the case of 
natural science, they are presumed to 
apply to the world around us. 

Then, on the basis of agreed-on laws 
of logic, which must be assumed, one 
can derive or "prove" the conse- 
quences of these sets of postulates. 

How can we be sure the postulates 

February 1968 




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are satisfactory? The mathematician 
Godel has shown that in the most 
generally used mathematics, it is funda- 
mentally impossible to know whether 
or not the set of postulates chosen are 
even self-consistent. Only by con- 
structing and using a new set of 
master postulates can we test the con- 
sistency of the first set. But these in 
turn may be logically inconsistent 
without the possibility of our knowing 
it. Thus we never have a real base 
from which we can reason with surety. 
Godel doubled our surprises by showing 
that, in this same mathematical realm, 
there are always mathematical truths 
that fundamentally cannot be proved 
by the approach of normal logic. His 
important proofs came only about three 
decades ago, and have profoundly af- 
fected our view of human logic. 

There is another way by which we 
become convinced that a scientific idea 
or postulate is valid. In the natural 
sciences, we prove it by making some 
kind of test of the postulate against 
experience. We devise experiments to 
test our working hypotheses, and be- 
lieve that those laws or hypotheses are 
correct that seem to agree with our 
experience. Such tests can disprove 
a hypothesis, or can give us useful 
confidence in its applicability and cor- 
rectness, but they can never prove in 
any absolute sense. 

Can religious beliefs also be 
viewed as working hypotheses, 
to be tested and validated by 
experience? To some this may seem a 
secular and even an abhorrent view. 
In any case, it discards absolutism in 
religion. But I see no reason why 
acceptance of religion on this basis 
should be objectionable. The validity 
of religious ideas must be and has 

been tested and judged through the 
ages by the experience of societies and 
of individuals. Is there any great 
need for them to be more absolute 
than the law of gravity? The latter is a 
working hypothesis whose basis and 
permanency we do not know. But we 
risk our lives daily on our belief in 
it, as well as on many other complex 
scientific hypotheses. 

Science usually deals with problems 
that are so much simpler and situations 
that are so much more easily con- 
trollable than does religion. The quan- 
titative difference in the directness 
with which we can test hypotheses in 
sciences and religion generally hides 
the logical similarities that are there. 
A controlled experiment on religious 
ideas is perhaps not at all possible, 
and we rely for evidence primarily on 
human history and personal expe"ience. 
But certain aspects of natural science 
and the extension of science into social 
sciences have also required similar use 
of experience and observation in testing 

Suppose now that we were to accept 
completely the proposition that science 
and religion are essentially similar. 
Where does this leave us, and where 
does it lead us? Religion can, I believe, 
profit from the experience of science, 
where the hard facts of nature and 
the tangibility of evidence have beaten 
into our thinking some ideas that man- 
kind has often resisted. 

First, we must recognize the tenta- 
tive nature of knowledge. Our present 
understanding of science or of religion 
is likely, if it agrees with experience, to 
continue to have an important degree 
of validity just as does Newtonian 
mechanics. But there may be many 
deeper things that we do not yet know 


By Paul 

Ideas will intoxicate, 

If swallowed fast and taken straight; 

Will cause a kind of pressure pain, 

Infused into an empty brain; 

And some would claim it more than fiction 

That frequent use may cause addiction. 

Improvement Era 

and that, when discovered, may modify 
our thinking in very basic ways. 

We must also expect paradoxes, and 
not be surprised or unduly troubled by 
them. We know of paradoxes in 
physics, such as that concerning the 
nature of light, which have been re- 
solved by deeper understanding. We 
know of some that are still unresolved. 
In the realm of religion, we are 
troubled by the suffering around us 
and its apparent inconsistency with a 
God of love. Such paradoxes con- 
fronting science do not usually destroy 
our faith in science. They simply re- 
mind us of a limited understanding, 
and at times they provide a key to 
learning more. 

Perhaps in the realm of religion 
there will be cases of the uncertainty 
principle, which we now know as such 
a characteristic phenomenon of phys- 
ics. If it is fundamentally impossible 
to determine accurately both the posi- 
tion and velocity of a particle, it should 
not surprise us if similar limitations 
occur in other aspects of our experi- 
ence. This opposition in the precise 
determination of two quantities is also 
referred to as complementarity; posi- 
tion and velocity represent comple- 
mentary aspects of a particle, only one 
of which can be measured precisely at 
any one time. 

Nils Bohr has already suggested that 
perception of man and his physical 
constitution represents this kind of 
complementarity. That is, the precise 
and close examination of the atomic 
makeup of man may of necessity blur 
our view of him as a living and spiritual 
being. In any case, there seems to be 
no justification for the dogmatic posi- 
tion taken by some that the remarkable 
phenomenon of individual human per- 
sonality can be expressed completely in 
terms of the presently known laws of 
behavior and molecules. Justice and 
love may also represent such comple- 
mentarity. A completely loving ap- 
proach and the simultaneous meting 
out of exact justice hardly seem 

These examples are only somewhat 

fuzzy analogies of complementarity as 
it is known in science, or they may in- 
deed be valid, though still poorly 
defined, occurrences of the uncertainty 
principle. But in any case, we should 
expect such occurrences and be fore- 
warned by science that there will be 
fundamental limitations to our knowing 
everything at once with precision and 

Finally, if science and religion are 
so broadly similar, and not arbi- 
trarily limited in their domain, they 
should at some time clearly converge. 
I believe this confluence is inevitable, 
for they both represent man's efforts 
to understand his universe and must 
ultimately be dealing with the same 
substance. As we understand more in 
each realm, the two must grow to- 
gether. Perhaps by the time this 
convergence occurs, science will have 
been through a number of revolutions 
as striking as those that have occurred 
in the last century and will have taken 
on a character not readily recognizable 
by scientists of today. Perhaps our 
religious understanding will also have 
seen progress and change. But con- 
verge they must, and through this 
should come new strength for both. 

In the meantime, with tentative un- 
derstanding, uncertainty, and change, 
how can we live gloriously and act 
decisively today? It is this problem, I 
suspect, that has so often tempted man 
to insist that he has final and ultimate 
truth locked in some particular phrase- 
ology or symbolism, even when the 
phraseology may mean a hundred 
different things to a hundred different 
people. How well we are able to 
commit our lives to ideas that we 
recognize in principle as only tentative 
represents a real test of mind and 

Galileo espoused the cause of 
Copernicus' theory of the solar system 
at great personal cost because of the 
church's opposition. We know today 
that the question on which Galileo 
took his stand, -the correctness of 
the idea that the earth rotates around 
the sun rather than the sun around the 

"We must expect 


and not be surprised 

or unduly troubled 

by them." 

earth, is largely an unnecessary ques- 
tion. The two descriptions are equiva- 
lent, according to general relativity, 
although the first is simpler. And yet 
we honor Galileo for his pioneering 
courage and determination in deciding 
what he really thought was right and 
speaking out. This was important to 
his own integrity and to the develop- 
ment of the scientific and religious 
views of the time. 

The authority of religion seemed 
more crucial in Galileo's Italy than it 
usually does today, and science 
seemed more fresh and simple. We 
tend to think of ourselves as now more 
sophisticated, and of both science and 
religion as more complicated, so that 
our position can be less clear-cut. Yet 
if we accept the assumption of either 
science or religion, that truth exists, 
surely each of us should undertake the 
same kind of task as did Galileo, or 
as did Gautama long before him. For 
ourselves and for mankind, we must 
use our best wisdom and instincts, the 
evidence of history and wisdom of the 
ages, and the experience and revela- 
tions of our friends and heroes in order 
to get as close as possible to truth 
and meaning. Furthermore, we must 
be willing to live and act on our 
conclusions. O 

February 1968 


• Long and lonely are the days, To those who search to find 

And dark and empty are the their God. 


The work we have is long and And there are those who heed us 

hard not — 

As we attempt to spread the Who don't believe tve have this 

light call — 

Of truth and happiness abroad, Whom, we must warn of what 

Richard L. Evans 

The Spoken Word 

The cycle of our worries 

The cycle of our moods and worries is puzzling at times. The same 
troubles and difficulties that worry us at one time do not so much 
worry us at another. The same problems that cause sleeplessness 
at one time do not seem so much to do so at another. The change is often 
in us, more than in external events. A physical symptom, concern about 
a loved one, concern about ourselves may run from optimism to deep 
depression with about the same set of circumstances, except within 
ourselves. When we worry we are less efficient; we contribute to the 
cause and slow down the cure. Whatever the cause, we should do what 
we can do, and not just brood and wonder and hope our worry will 
go away. If we are young and worrying about the future, we should 
study and prepare and make ourselves as competent as we can. If our 
worry comes from a troubled conscience, we should repent, be prayer- 
ful, cultivate a simple faith, and keep the commandments. Whatever 
our worries, we should not brood in the dark. Darkness is dangerous. 
It is physically, mentally, emotionally dangerous. We should take our 
worries out and look at them in the light, separate facts from fears, 
think things through, and not imagine the worst on a sleepless night. 
"Life is thickly sown with thorns," said Voltaire, "and I know no other 
remedy than to pass quickly through them. The longer we dwell on our 
misfortunes, the greater is their power to harm us." All men have down 
days, discouraging days, difficulties and depression. Countless people 
have conquered, have overcome, have picked up broken pieces, or 
have gone on even when there weren't many pieces to pick up. We 
need faith and facts and good plain common sense to lift us from the 
down days and the darkness, remembering that discouragement and 
depression often come from the distortion of darkness. This sentence 
from Marcus Aurelius is oversimplified, but since worry is often caused 
by doing nothing about something we should be doing, for many situa- 
tions it has within it something of real substance: "I do my duty," he 
said; "other things trouble me not." 1 

'The Philosophy of Marcus Aurelius, XII i. 

#"The Spoken Word" from Temple Square, presented over KSL and the Columbia 
Broadcasting System November 26, 1967. Copyright 1967. 

will come. 
This is the hardest part of all, 

For they will merit their re- 

For heeding not our joyous 

But where are those of Israel 
Who search to find the upward 

Where shall we find, those chosen, 

Who seek to parry Justice's 

With kindly, golden, selfless 

To satisfy another's needs ? 

For to these people we are sent, 
But they are hidden — hard to 

find — 
And we more often speak to 
those - 


Improvement Era 

With spirits beaming, good and 

Who seek not for a better way, 
But close their minds to what 
iv e say. 

Oh, the aching in my heart! 
Oh, the agony of mind! — 
When I see the blinding wall 
Before these people — good, and, 
kind — 
Which blocks from them the 

glowing vision 
They could see if they would 

If only I could give to them 
A moment's view of what I see! 
If only I could raise in them 
A moment's hope that they could 
A being on a higher plane, 
With glory which would never 

wane l 

The Call 

By Geary R. Younce 

But I remember they are given 
Agency with which to choose 
Those things which they most 

want to have 
And also those they want to lose. 
For to each person it is given 
To choose the role he ivants in 

But of the words I give to them, 
I testify as to their truth. 
For on the final judgment day 
I want to stand ivithout reproof; 

That I may hear the ivords, 
"Well done! 

Come thou and live with me, 

my son. 


Richard L. Evans 

The Spoken Word 

Humor on high and low levels 

Humor is essential to a full and happy life. It is a reliever and 
relaxer of pressure and tension, and the saving element in many 
situations. But there are different kinds of humor, prompted by 
different spirits, some sincere, some unacceptable. There is delightful, 
wholesome humor that heals and helps the spirit and gives a lift to life. 
There is giddy, trivial humor that produces light-minded laughter— the 
all-but-vacant and inconsequential kind that comes with little content, 
little cause. There is evil humor, grim humor, humor that embarrasses, 
and humor that is cruel, unkind. There is humor that is unclean, and 
that has no place among considerate people or in decent society. There 
is an account of a man who cautioned a speaker against telling off-color 
stories, because, said he, "There are ladies present"— to which someone 
added the observation that there were also gentlemen present. The 
assumption that something suggestive, low-minded, or unclean is all 
right in one kind of audience but not in another is a questionable assump- 
tion. Anything filthy or basically unclean is wrong in any audience. 
One of the frequent and unfortunate mistakes that some speakers and 
performers and masters of ceremonies make is assuming that they should 
degrade themselves and their audience with suggestive, unclean stories- 
stories that are filthier than they are funny, to the embarrassment of 
every decent-minded person. Even when suggestive and unclean humor 
gets a laugh, it is more likely the laugh of embarrassment, rather than of 
genuine amusement: embarrassment for the poor judgment of him who 
has gone so far as to forget decency and good taste; for him who goes 
below the level of what is clean, to what is supposedly clever even if 
unclean. We lower our own level and contribute to the downpull of 
young and impressionable people when we inject unclean, low-minded 
humor into any part of any proceedings, in public or in private. We 
may well be grateful for the man of clean mind, and for the gift and 
blessing of kindly, wholesome humor, which adds a wonderful lift 
to life. 

*'The Spoken Word" from TempleSquare, presented over KSL and the Columbia 
Broadcasting System November 12, 1967. Copyright 1967. 

February 1968 


The LDS Scene 

Guatemala Seminary 

Brother Alan Baldizon of the Guatemala Stake instructs 

youth in one of two early morning seminary classes 

organized in the Guatemala Stake. Stake President Udine 

Falabella teaches the other class. More than 

40 LDS youth attended classes in Book of Mormon 

this past year. Greater numbers are expected in 

the present school year, which began in January and 

continues until October. 

Temple Square Lighting 

For the third straight year, Temple Square was aglow 

with over 100,000 colorful Christmas lights, which drew 

large crowds of visitors during the Christmas season. 

Thousands of tiny globes lit up every limb, branch, and 

twig in a wide circle of wintering sycamores, maples, 

box elders, birches, and pines. A tableau of scenes of 

the Nativity was also well received by visitors, as 

were huge reproductions of paintings on the life of Christ, 

which were placed near the center walkway. Inside 

the Tabernacle, performances of the opera "Amahl and 

the Night Visitors" were presented for several nights to 

capacity crowds. Some 63 television stations throughout 

the U.S. carried a special 30-minute color presentation 

of "Christmas on Temple Square," which featured 

the lighting, the Nativity display, and the Tabernacle Choir. 

Interstate Commerce 

Grant E. Syphers has been 
appointed by President 
Lyndon B. Johnson as a 
commissioner on the 
Interstate Commerce 
Commission. Brother 
Syphers, new resident of 
the Fairfax (Virginia) Ward, 
formerly resided in West 
Arcadia (California) Ward. 
The Interstate Commerce 
Commission, oldest 
regulatory commission in 

U.S. government, regulates 
interstate transportation 
and commerce in the 
United States. 


Improvement Era 

Polynesian Center 

Lawrence Haneberg of 
Honolulu, Hawaii, has been 
named vice-president and 
general manager of the 
Church's Polynesian Cultural 
Center in Laie, Hawaii. 
Brother Haneberg, formerly 
a member of the Honolulu 
Stake presidency, has a 
strong family heritage 
in Hawaii. His grandfather 
was an early Hawaiian 
sugar planter and co- 
founder of Clorox Chemical 
'Company. Brother Hane- 
berg will coordinate 
management of the six 
authentic villages — Hawaiian, 
Tongan, Samoan, Maori, 
Tahitian, and Fijian — 
that make up the famed 
tourist center. 

Distinguished Service 

LeRoy R. Stevens, president 
of Stevens Henager Business 
College and member of 
the Monument Park (Salt 
Lake City) 15th Ward, has 
received the distinguished 
service award of the 
United Business Schools 
Association. The association 
has a membership of 
more than 500 schools in 


Dr. Earl C. Crockett, 
academic vice-president of 
Brigham Young University, 
has been reelected 
chairman of the high com- 
mission of the Northwest 
Association of Secondary and 
Higher Schools for two 
additional years. It is only 
the second time in the 
organization's history that 
a chairman has been 
reelected. The association is 
the official accrediting 
agency for universities, 
colleges, and high schools 
in Montana, Utah, Idaho, 
Washington, Oregon, Nevada, 
and Alaska. In 1964, 
Dr. Crockett served as acting 
president of Brigham 
Young University. 

BY High School to Close 

After 92 years of service, the Brigham Young High 

and Elementary School will discontinue operation at the 

end of the current 1968 school year. Originally a 

part of Brigham Young Academy, the school had as its 

purpose the training of student teachers. However, 

increasing numbers of students in education have long 

required the placement of BYU student-teachers in 

districts throughout Utah and surrounding states. 

BY High students, in the center hallway 

between classes, swarm in front of a trophy case loaded 

with evidence of their triumphs over the years. 

North and South America, 
representing enrollment of 
over 200,000 students. 

Sao Paulo Exhibit 

Bishop Helio da Rocha Camargo of the Sao Paulo (Brazil) 
Second Ward explains the importance of religion to 
Jose de Almeida Leite, head of Sao Paulo's department 
of culture and education, at the opening of the 
Brazilian Mission's pavilion at the Lapa Municipal Library. 
At the request of officials, the exhibit was shown in all 
13 of Sao Paulo's municipal libraries. Much praise was 
received for the exhibit's high quality and its message 
of love and peace. 

February 1968 


The Church A/loves On 

Richard L. Evans 

The Spoken Word 

Thanks: for the organization and 
operation of the earth 

In considering things to be thankful for, there is this we often take for 
granted: the organization and operation of the earth. "What would 
this life of ours be like," asked one writer, "if Chance ruled our 
destinies? If, for instance— Autumn might or might not succeed Sum- 
mer, Spring might or might not follow Winter. A weary world that 
would truly be . . . left to the buffeting of an unknown yet all-pervading 
caprice." 1 What if there were no air of the right kind in the right 
quantity, renewing itself for our sustenance; or water, which we some- 
times thoughtlessly pollute or waste away; or heat and cold within the 
right range; or soil and all the processes by which it produces; the sun, 
the seasons, the renewal of spring, the growing of summer, the harvest 
of autumn, the dormancy of winter, the endless products and provi- 
dence of the mountains, the sea, the fields, the forests. "Why should 
they be a matter of course? What have I, or you, what has any man 
done that earth should glow with beauty, . . . should hang . . . fruit upon 
the bending boughs . . . ? Surely ... we might ... be ready with thank- 
ful recognition of a bounty that . . . has gone on supplying [man's] needs 
through the . . . ages of the past, and supplies them still." 1 And not only 
for the physical organization of the earth, but for loved ones, for life — 
the purpose, the mystery, the miracle of it, the birth of a babe, which 
gives added reason for the reality of eternal continuance, the renewal 
of resurrection; for it is no greater miracle to have life everlasting than 
to have life here and now. And so, gratefully we acknowledge the 
infinite mind of our Maker, and gratefully ought to offer our tithes 
and offerings, and earnestly consistent service, in thanks for all that 
God has given, and keep his commandments in remembrance of the 
love and providence and purpose of the Creator, the God and Father 
of us all, the organizer and operator of heaven and earth, without whom 
all these things would not be so. Thank God for all this: for life and 
what sustains it, for loved ones that make it meaningful, for faith and 
purpose and continuance, always and forever. Thank God for all of 
this— and much, much more. 

1 "The Thankful Month," Lewis's Magazine, 

* "The Spoken Word" from Temple Square, presented over KSL and the Columbia 
Broadcasting System November 19, 1967. Copyright 1967. 

November 1967 

( _New stake presidencies: President 
William P. Barnes and counselors 
Reed M. Nielsen and Howard E. Gibson 
in the Lost River (Idaho) Stake; Presi- 
dent Richard L. Warner and counselors 
Richard J. Marshall and Graham W. 
Doxey in the University First (Salt Lake 
City) Stake; President Douglas J. Mar- 
tin and counselors C. Sydney Shepherd 
and Albert M. Kewene in Hamilton (New 
Zealand) Stake. 

Hamilton South (New Zealand) Stake 
was organized from parts of Hamilton 
Stake by Elder Thomas S. Monson of 
the Council of the Twelve and Presi- 
dent Paul H. Dunn of the First Council 
of the Seventy. Sustained as president 
was Harry S. Peckham, with Larry R. 
Oler and Raymond W. Ritchie as coun- 
selors. This is the 445th stake now 

[Elder Chris Russell Sampson, 20, 
serving in the Florida Mission, was 
killed in an automobile accident at West 
Palm Beach, Florida. His home was 
Apple Gate, California. His companion, 
Elder Steven Thomas Olsen of Monroe, 
Utah, was injured in the same mishap. 
His injuries are not considered serious. 

Texas North Stake was organized 
by Elder Richard L. Evans of the 
Council of the Twelve and Elder Ber- 
nard P. Brockbank, Assistant to the 
Twelve. Sustained were President 
Franklin S. Gonzalez and counselors 
John M. Anderson and Milton L. Pierce. 
This is the 446th stake now functioning. 

A collection of Egyptian papyri, 
once owned by the Prophet Joseph 
Smith, was given to the Church by the 
Metropolitan Museum of Art in New 
York City. (See the January Era.) 

Perth (Australia) Stake, 447th now 
i functioning, was organized under 
the direction of Elder Thomas S. Mon- 
son of the Council of the Twelve and 
Bishop Robert L. Simpson of the 


Improvement Era 

Presiding Bishopric. Donald W. Cum- 
mings was sustained as president, with 
Leslie E. Williams and Derek A. Edwards 
as counselors. 

December 1967 

New stake presidencies: President 
Robert W. Barker and counselors 
June B. Thane and Wendell G. Eames, 
Washington (D.C.) Stake; President 
Richard P. Shumway and counselors 
Arden L. Rowley and Dean B. Farns- 
worth, Orem West (Utah) Stake; Presi- 
dent Stephen L Van Wagener and 
counselors Dean O. Peck and Samuel 
L. Hamilton, North Sacramento (Cali- 
fornia) Stake; President Clive V. Tenney 
and counselors E Craig Harper and 
Joseph C. Price, San Diego (California) 
East Stake. 

Multi-colored lights — more than 
100,000 of them — were turned on 
at Temple Square this evening, high- 
lighting other decorations and scenes 
on Temple Square, all heralding the 
coming Christmas season. 

Simi Stake, named for a ward and 

the Council of the Twelve and Elder 
Sterling W. Sill, Assistant to the Twelve. 
It was taken from the Reseda and 
Canoga Park stakes, and is the 448th 
stake now functioning. Sustained were 
President John Lyman Ballif and coun- 
selors Lloyd S. Moffit and Noal T. 

New stake presidencies: President 
Dennis K. Myers and counselors Reed 
V. Langlois and Grant V. Bunderson in 
the San Diego South (California) Stake; 
President Robert D. Orme and coun- 
selors Horace E. Hess and Vincent A. 
Birch in the Yellowstone (Idaho) Stake. 

The Salt Lake Tabernacle Choir 
presented its 2,000th weekly radio 
network program. 

President David 0. McKay attended 
the annual Christmas meeting of 
General Authorities and employees of 
the Church Administration Building. 
The meeting also honored the birth of 
the Prophet Joseph Smith. The Presi- 
dent's message was read by a son, 
General Superintendent David Law- 
rence McKay of the Sunday Schools. 

A total of 63 television stations 
a geographical location in Cali- LAI are carrying a special 30-minute 
fornia, was organized under the direc- color presentation of "Christmas on 
tion of Elder Howard W. Hunter of Temple Square" this year. 

A Warning 

By Kenneth 
W. G. Catran 

On Cumorah's crest, the Prophet lay, 
bathed red in the set of a fatal day. 
Great Mormon raised his hand and cried, 
"This day a faithless people died. 

"Once proud and fair, a joy to behold, 
with cities of stone, and spires of gold. 
Alas! They forsook their Christian zeal 
and now lie dead 'neath a heathen heel. 

"A savage stalks the fruitful land 
with flaming torch in upraised hand. 
But 'twas not him with his painted face 
that spelt thy doom, O wayward race. 

"A Tower of Babel toithin the mind 
brought to an end my Nephite kind. 
They would not heed their God on high 
and so are sprawled 'neath a darkening sky.' 

February 1968 

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LDS Congressmen 

In October and November you ran the 
viewpoints of LDS congressmen. Per- 
sonally, we have nothing against this. We 
like to know which Church members are 
serving in Congress, and what their views 
are. However, recently we have heard 
speakers in Church using quotations 
from these congressmen, and indicating 
that these quotations represent the 
Church's stand on certain issues. For 
instance, we know from study that the 
population explosion is not the worst 
problem we have. Rather, Communism 
is our worst problem. We know that the 
purpose of the articles was good, but 
some people take for granted that be- 

cause these men belong to the Church, 
what they say is Church policy. 

Brother and Sister Savage 
Cottage Grove, Oregon 

Congressmen — even members of the 
Church — are official representatives of 
their constituents and themselves only, 
and not of the Church. Their viewpoints 
were clearly labeled personal, and as such 
were published for the interest and stimu- 
lation of Era readers. 

Two and a Half Years Later 

In a belated reading of "Neither Purse 
nor Sword" (August 1965) by Dr. G. 
Homer Durham, concerning the U.S. Su- 
preme Court, I could not disagree with 
it more. I believe that this idea of five 
men out of nine being able to flout the 
plain intent of the legislators is going to 
be the ruin of our constitutional republic 
if it is not curbed. 

These officials are sworn to "protect, 
uphold, and defend" the Constitution. 
Also, the comparison of the evolution of 
the body of the law in Rome and Britain 
with the U.S. is not valid because the 
former two did not have a rigid, written 
constitution. True, we drew heavily on 

thousands of years of western civilization 
in writing the U.S. Constitution, but once 
written and adopted, it was not to be 
changed by other than the means pro- 

I am thoroughly convinced that our 
Constitution is a divine document, writ- 
ten by men raised up by God for that 
very purpose. 

William H. Edwards 
Phoenix, Arizona 

"Morals and Politics . . ." 

The column "Morals and Politics in In- 
ternational Life" ( November ) appears 
to me to be out of harmony both with 
the scriptures and with the repeated ad- 
montions of our modern prophets. , 

Had the philosophy of separating mo- 
rality from politics been observed, I feel 
sure we would never have had our 
Declaration of Independence or our Con- 

If the philosophy of the article were 
projected, it would appear that we should 
surrender to the Communists once they 
were demonstrably superior to us from a 
military standpoint. I think we should 
die first! 

W. Vaughn Ellsworth 
Mesa, Arizona 

Rulon H. Cheney 



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in your stake, and have 
an exciting career in the 
growing field of fashion. 

Call or write: 

2511 South West Temple 

Salt Lake City, Utah 486-2359 


Improvement Era 

We Won't Strike 

May I express my thanks to all concerned 
with the publication of the Era. From this 
wonderful magazine I get quite a kick. I 
love to read about the true Church of 
Jesus Christ. Since being introduced to 
the Church by my son Peter, my home 
has now been transformed into a happy 
one. No words can really express the 
wonderful work the young elders do 
here. The hard work and sincerity of 
these boys is very moving. 

Sometime back I felt that I was re- 
jected not only by my family but by 
everyone with whom I came into con- 
tact. Now I look back on those years 
and say to myself, "What a waste of 
years." I am still alone but not lonely. 
The love of our Heavenly Father, health, 
happiness, and the blessings of God are 
worth more than money. 

May I offer my thanks to everyone con- 
cerned with the Era. I have no com- 
plaints about it. But please don't you 
get the strike bug. (In our community a 
big strike is going on.) I can't help 
wondering what would happen if our 
Heavenly Father were to go on strike. 
Mrs. Rosemary Morris 
Leamington, Pennsylvania 

Stayed Up All Night 

Perhaps you would like to know that 
one of our investigators stayed up all 
night to read the Eras we loaned her. 
Now that she is a member of the Church, 
she is passing them on to her friends to 

Elder Jerry L. Blackburn 
New Town 
Tasmania, Australia 

Life Among the Mormons 

The poetic series "Life Among the Mor- 
mons" in the "End of an Era" has been 
outstanding in its frankness, good humor, 
and incisive truth and accuracy. I find 
it much in the tradition of some of the 
folk songs, like "Once I lived in Cotton- 
wood," in which the nineteenth century 
Latter-day Saint pioneer didn't hesitate 
to satirize the foibles of those both low 
and high. After all, though the gospel 
is perfect, no single one of us is. 

Robert W. Donigan 
Logan, Utah 

Compartmentalized Saint 

I would like to tell you how much I, and 
many more with me in our ward, liked 
the two-part article "Parable of the Com- 
partmentalized Saint" ( September-Octo- 
ber). In reading the part about exposing 
the body in beauty contests, and in read- 
ing the Prophet's thoughts on the subject, 
it came to my mind that there are various 
publications about our Church written 
by respected members, and some of these 
publications even carry favorable articles 
and photographs of beauty queens who 
are LDS. Does this agree with Church 
principles and standards? Would these 
things not have been better left out? 

Bob deBoer 
Ontario, Canada 



20% savings on selected titles 


Catalog and details on how to obtain your LDS books and records at a savings 
sent upon request; they will be included with your selections when you order. 

of Mormon Stories for 
Boys and Girls" $1.80 

by Marie Musig Barton + postage 

(reg. $2.25) 

CHILDREN $15.96 

—records of the above book + postage 
by Sister Barton (reg. $19.95) 


by Pres. David O. McKay 
(reg. $4.95) 




United States send 10c per $3.00 
order or portion thereof. (Ex. $1.90 
order 10c; $3.25 order 20c) All For- 
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by Bruce R. McConkie + postage 


We carry 95% of all LDS books and rec- 
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Residents of Arizona add 3 percent sales 


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Offer good anywhere in world 

February 1968 



3 3 3 




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while the supply of these booklets lasts. 

Hoiomalic Gas Water 
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Educational Media Services 

Herald R. Clark Building 

Brigham Young University 

Provo, Utah 84601 

Also Available at: 

• Chicago, Illinois 

• San Francisco, California 

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• Morals constitute the concern 
for what is right and what is wrong. 
"Low" morals in common talk 
refer to standards or conduct on 
one end of the scale. "High moral 
standards" generally mean that 
things or conduct are on the right 
side. Ordinary people usually say 
a thing is good or bad. Public 
figures, politicians, teachers, 
preachers, executive speechmak- 
ers, however, usually talk about 

For some time we have been 
hearing about "the crisis in 
morality," or "the new morality," 
or "moral stagnation," and so 
forth. Generally speaking, in the 
public domain, the meanings of 
such terms go undefined. But the 
implication runs to the point that 
things are pretty bad and about 
to get worse. It has gone this way 
throughout history. Moral concern 
goes with the facts and acts of 

The moral teachings of Jesus, 
as disclosed in the Four Gospels, 
set forth the highest standards of 
individual and social conduct, to- 
gether with the greatest sense of 
compassion and understanding 

By Dr. G. Homer 

Arizona State University 

(together with forgiveness) of 
human frailty. His words, "Neither 
do I condemn thee: go, and sin 
no more" (John 8:11), afford 
comfort. Few, aside from Jesus, 
ever utter them. Nor are prayers 
often heard for "them which de- 
spitefully use you." (Matt. 5:44.) 
Nor is love displayed toward ene- 
mies. The Gospels tell us that 
moral conduct, right or wrong, is 
a matter of attitude — of the heart, 
mind, and spirit, as well as the 
physical performance of the hand, 
foot, or body; that in order to keep 
ourselves in a state of grace, it 
helps to be forgiving and merciful 
to others, as a means of disciplin- 
ing our own feelings, conduct, and 

This leads to one thought as to 
what may be wrong in the present 
world. It is that hardly anyone 
takes time to read what Jesus 
himself said and did. He continues 
to be, in Bruce Barton's words, the 
man nobody knows. If this wrong 
could be righted, some of the 
other things, more often talked 
about, would improve. 

Custom, habit, and tradition 
are more influential than the 

Improvement Era 

"source material" found in the 
Four Gospels. Despite the rise of 
literacy and education, and the 
physical presence of the Bible, 
our moral standards have been 
more firmly shaped by the onward 
sweep of custom and tradition in 
civilization. Much of the energy 
expended to uphold rightness or 
deter wrongness is aimed at 
superficialities rather than basic 
human attitudes. For example, 
long hair, beards, and sandals are 
not in themselves wrong. Indeed, 
they were badges of respectability 
not so long ago. Nor is a neat, 
well-groomed look always the 
badge of moral virtue. Appear- 
ances are often deceiving. But the 
minds of men tend to see things 
in stereotype. 

An age that hears outcries 
against statism, regimentation, 
the evils of conformity, and the 
virtues of individualism, tends to 
shudder at the least expression of 
individuality and individual dif- 
ference. Birds of a feather flock 
together. Any others tend to be 
ugly ducklings. A small town, 
composed of single-minded, pro- 
fessed Christians, makes it diffi- 
cult for those of a different sect 
when the new factory brings 
"strangers" to town. The message 
written large in the Four Gospels 
goes unheeded. Fear of the un- 
known pervades the atmosphere 
until replaced by warm knowledge 
developed by cool minds. 

There is breakdown of law and 
order. Crimes of violence are on 
the increase. People are on the 
increase. The moral crisis moves 
ever onward, upward, and down- 
ward. But the lessons basic to the 
heart of the matter are rarely 
heard. Checks are written for the 
United Fund. Headlines about the 
latest atrocity are read. But who 
has actually read the parables of 
the Good Samaritan or the Prodi- 
gal Son recently? And practiced 
or applied them? 

But, be of good cheer. Help 
exists — and is available. God has 
made man in such notable fashion 
that he may stumble through life 
without taking too much conscious 
advantage of the New Testament. 
Help comes in a volume called the 
Book of Mormon, wherein a good 
parent-teacher named Lehi dis- 
closed to his son Jacob that "men 
are instructed sufficiently that 
they know good from evil," and 
that redemption "cometh in and 
through the Holy Messiah; for he 
is full of grace and truth. Behold, 
he offereth himself a sacrifice for 
sin, to answer the ends of the law, 
unto all those who have a broken 
heart and a contrite spirit; and 
unto none else can the ends of the 
law be answered." (2 Ne. 2:5-7.) 

Now, life has a way of bringing 
about broken hearts and contrite 
spirits. Thus, given man's moral 
nature and life's experiences, the 
outlook is really hopeful! For, as 
the Book of Mormon teacher 
pointed out further to his son, 
"men are, that they might have 
joy." (2 Ne. 2:25.) 

In conclusion, it may well be 
important to remark that the ethic 
of "joy" introduced something 
quite novel into the Calvinist sys- 
tem of morals, wherein the doc- 
trine was announced in 1830 A.D. 
Men were supposed to be con- 
ceived in sin, to be born in sin, 
to live in sin, and to die as worms; 
not eternal souls, born with moral 
sense ("instructed sufficiently"), 
endowed with creative power, 
questing for knowledge and intel- 
ligence in order to surmount 
existing arrangements, moving 
toward progress. 

Well, things seem pretty bad 
sometimes. But there is comfort 
in some of these things in these 
times. Remember the key thought: 
Morals and moral concerns have 
for their purpose not misery, but 
joy! It will help if more of us act 
as if we really believe it. o 

February 1968 




Suggested LDS Choir Anthems 

Abide With Me, 'Tis Eventide 



All Glory, Laud and Honor 



All in the April Evening 



America the Beautiful 



Awake! Arise! 



Beautiful Zion for Me 



Bless Ye the Lord 



Brother James Air 



Come, Come Ye Saints 



Come, Come Ye Saints 



For the Beauty of the Earth 



Glory to God 



God is Holy 



God So Loved the World 



Gospel Gives Unbounded 
Strength, The 



Gospel Is Truly the Power 
of God 



He Watching Over Israel 



Here in This House 



Holy City 



How Beautiful Upon the 




I Shall Not Pass Again 
This Way 



If Ye Love Me, Keep My 



In My Father's House 



Jerusalem, Turn Thee 



Jesus, Name of Wondrous Love 



King of Love My Shepherd Is 



Let Not Your Heart Be 



Let Us Oft Speak Kind Words 



Lo, My Shepherd Is Divine 



Lo, What a Beauteous Rose 



Lord Bless You and Keep You 



Lord Is a Mighty God, The 



Lord Hear Our Prayer 



Lord Is My Shepherd, The 



Lord's Prayer 



Lord's Prayer 



May Now Thy Spirit 



My Redeemer Lives 



Now Let the Heavens Be 



Now Thank We All Our God 



Now Thank We All Our God 



Brother Man 



Cast Thy Burden Upon 
the Lord 



Come, Let Us Worship 



God, Our Help in Ages 



Lofty Mountains 



6 Loving Savior, Slain for Us 



Worship the King 



Onward Ye People 



Open Our Eyes 



Open the Gates 



Poor Wayfaring Man of Grief 



Son of Man 



Spirit of God 



Still, Still With Thee 



Thanks to Thee, Lord 



That Blessed Easter Morn 



Verdant Meadows 



We Are Watchmen 



With a Voice of Singing 



The Letters E, M, MD and 
medium, medium difficult, 

D indicate easy, 
and difficult. 

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End of an Era 

The assignment was written 

on the seminary 

classroom blackboard: "Why do 

we need a Church?" 

All of the students began to 

write busily except one. 

He wrote a few words, then 

turned to his mathematics 

book. The teacher, 

his temperature rising with each 

step, marched back to 

him, his red pencil poised to 

mark 1V F" on the 

paper. Then he saw what the 

boy had written: 'To keep 

the GO in the GOspel." 

— Mrs. John S. Kelley, 

Boise, Idaho 

A scientist rushed into the 
control room of the missile center 
and announced a new 
discovery. "Gentlemen," he 
shouted, "there are women 
on the moon. We just shot up 
a communication rocket and 
got a busy signal!" 

We have no excuse to err in 

our knowledge and understanding 

of right and wrong, 

because God has marked out 

the path, the straight 

and narrow way that leads to life 

eternal. — Elder Delbert L. 


My son Robert, as a child, 

had a slight speech impediment that 

he was quite sensitive 

about. When he was in the 

fourth grade, his teacher told the 

class that Utah was settled by 

pioneers who came, for 

the most part, from foreign countries. 

Then she told them 

to ask their parents about the 

nationalities of their forefathers. 

When I told Robert his 

ancestors were Danish, German, 

English, Scotch, and 

Spanish, his face lit up. ''Well!" 

he exclaimed. "No wonder I can't 

talk plain!" — Mrs. Martha H. 

Burton, Layton, Utah 

Can't Lose 
By Elizabeth Whitney 

// I have an umbrella 
That's pretty and new 
And leave it somewhere, 
The result is "adieu." 

If I leave this umbrella, 
Well in its decline, 
Someone's sure to come 

And ask if it's mine! 

Lawyer — "You say that 

you were about 35 feet from the 

scene of the crime and 

yet you can identify the defendant? 

Just how far can you see 

clearly?" Witness: "Well, when 

I wake up in the 

morning I can see the sun, 

and they tell me that's 

93 million miles away!" 

The best way I know of 

to win an argument is to start 

by being in the right. 

— Lord Hailsham 

A politician thinks of the 
next election; a statesman of 
the next generation. 
— James Freeman Clarke, 
American clergyman 

Oh, if it be to choose and call 

thee mine, 

Love, thou art every day my 


—Thomas Hood, "For the 

Fourteenth of February" 

"End of an Era" will pay $3 for humorous anecdotes and experiences relating to Latter-day Saint way of life. Maximum length 150 words. 


Improvement Era 


An outstanding two-year college owned and operated 
by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints 

Each student is special at Ricks College 

Classes are small at Ricks College. Close 
personal relationships tielween professor an 
student are the way of life. It's a way of life 

titude of friendliness and 
inspired by the common 
It precipitates a wonder- 
by student and faculty, 

dominated by an a 
concern for others 
bond of the gospel, 
ful feeling, shared 

that is fondly called "The Spirit of Ricks." 

The "spirit" is contagious. It begins wit 
the friendly hi's and smiles that greet 6ach 
student as he enters Ricks. It is amplified 
by choice new friendships found in shared- 
apartments, classes, and extra-curricular 
activities. It swells wijth pride in the great 
new campus (fifteen ijpajor buildings since 
1962, and a modern fieldhouse currently un- 
der construction). It i$ climaxed by unique 
experiences in social activities, leadership, 
and spirituality provided by the stu 
wards of the Ricks College Stake. 

Admission Requirements 

1. --Graduate from an accredited high school. 

2. Take the American College Test (A.C.T.). 

3. Arrange for x tiousing. 

4. All students are, welcome, and those who 
enroll are expected to maintain standards 
consistent with the ideals of The Church 
of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. 

jt does it cost to attend Ricks College? 

Tuition (yearly) LDS | $ 350.00 

(inon-LDS — $400^00) 
Board and Room (est.) 750.00 

"Books and Supplies (est.) 100.00 

$1,200.00 (est.) 

It is enhanced by the small classes thro 
which a superior faculty cares for the indi- 
vidual needs of thei students. Each student 
is special at Ricks College. 

Registration Datel 

Ricks C 

Application dates tp^femember 

Scholarship DeadJifie — April 10 
Admission Deadline — April 15 

You need to apply early for housing. Beauti- 
ful new residence halls for both boys and 
girls on and of\ campus provide modern 
apartment-style living. 

For housing information write: 

Housing, Ricks College^ Rexburg, Idaho 

83440. Remember, you must apply early. 

August 21, 22, 23 

bum, Idaho 83440 

Where "Hi" is the password! 

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints 

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It all adds up 
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Salt Lake City, Utah